- Building the context or field – understanding the role of texts in our culture and building shared understanding of the topic
- Modelling the text (or deconstruction) – the use of mentor or model texts to focus explicitly on the structure and the language of the text, how language choices work to shape meaning, and to build a metalanguage
- Guided practice (or joint construction) – teachers and students jointly constructing a text
- Independent construction – students’ independent writing or approximation of the genre.
(Derewianka & Jones, 2016; Humphrey, 2017; Humphrey & Feez, 2016)
Suggested activities or tasks within each of the stages of the teaching and learning cycle are outlined. These are not necessarily a sequence of activities, rather a range of possibilities to be included at varying points as appropriate in the development of the unit across several weeks.