Characterisation describes how the personality (strengths and weaknesses) of a character is represented in a text and how the personal characteristics (behaviour/actions) gradually evolve.
A clause is a group of words that contains a verb or verb group. An independent clause can ‘stand on its own’ and expresses a complete thought. There are different kinds of clauses. The clause that is essential to any sentence is an independent (or main) clause.
Compound and complex sentences contain more than one clause.
A clause that provides additional information to the main clause but cannot stand alone is a dependent (or subordinate) clause. For example:
- 'When the sun goes down (dependent), I shall eat my dinner (main).'‘
- My time is limited (main) because I am reading Shakespeare.’ (dependent)
An embedded clause occurs within the structure of another clause often as a qualifier to a noun group, for example:
‘The man who came to dinner (embedded) is my brother.’
Cohesion refers to the ways in which the elements of a sentence or a set of sentences are linked, by using either grammar or linking words. Cohesion refers to the flow of a text and can be achieved by using pronouns, words such as that, these, those (deictic words) and other (contrastive forms). The tone, style and meaning is maintained throughout. For example, I sat down and turned on the radio. Just then, I heard a strange noise. The phrase 'just then' relates these events in time.
An informal expression; the language of everyday speech.
Complex sentences contain an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. A dependent clause cannot stand on its own; it is dependent on the main (or independent) clause for its meaning. The following is an example of a complex sentence in Alison Lester’s Are we there yet?
‘When something slimy slithered past my leg, I screamed.’
DEPENDENT CLAUSE: When something slimy slithered past my leg
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: I screamed.
Dependent clauses can be connected to the main clause using a subordinating conjunction, for example, if, when, after, because, before.
Dependent clauses can also include a non-finite verb (a verb without a subject or tense). For example:
We stood in the shallows to see the dolphins.
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: We stood in the shallows
DEPENDENT CLAUSE: to see the dolphins.
Heading south on the Tanami Track, our car got bogged.
DEPENDENT CLAUSE: Heading south on the Tanami Track
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: our car got bogged.
Compound sentences contain two or more independent clauses joined by a co-ordinating conjunction (for example, and, but, so, or, not, yet, so). Each clause can ‘stand on its own’. The following is an example of a compound sentence in Alison Lester’s Are we there yet?
‘We flew over the Bungle Bungles in a helicopter without any doors and my stomach turned inside out.’
There are two independent clauses joined but the conjunction ‘and’:
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: We flew over the Bungle Bungles in a helicopter without any doors
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: and my stomach turned inside out
Young writers often use compound sentences quite in the texts that they write, relying on ‘and’ to join the statements.
Compound-complex sentences include a combination of independent and dependent clauses which can be combined using co-ordinating and subordinating conjunctions. For example:
As we travelled along the highway, we passed a number of houses and saw plenty of animals in paddocks.
DEPENDENT CLAUSE: As we travelled along the highway
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: we passed a number of houses
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: and saw plenty of animals in paddocks.
concepts of print
Concepts of print refer to the reader’s understanding or knowledge of the conventions used to read and write text. It is an awareness of how print works, letters forming words. It can be categorised into four main components; concept of book (e.g. cover of the book) concept of text (e.g. concept of a letter) directionality (e.g. left to right in a sentence) and mechanics (e.g. full stop or comma). It includes recognition that print in English starts from left and moves to right, return sweep and that words are organised into sentences.
A conjunction is a word like and, but, when, or etc which connects words, phrases or clauses.
consonant blend/consonant cluster
Blends are consonant letter clusters (a group of consonants with no vowels between them) that occur commonly in words. They comprise two or three consonants blended together in sound while retaining the sounds of the individual letters. For example: ‘bl’ in black, ‘cr’ in credit, ‘spr’ in spring, ‘st' in fast, ‘nd’ in land.
The context of a text is the particular situation, background, or environment to which the text (or part of the text) is related, for example, a social, cultural, and historical setting, or genre. It can also be used to refer more specifically to the speaker or writer of text, its audience, or the situation in which the text was generated or interpreted.
Information from the context of a message.
Count nouns refer to things which can be counted. That means that there can be more than one of them. Example: I saw a pear tree (‘pear tree’ is a count noun because pear trees can be counted) Noncount nouns refer to those things that can’t be counted. Example: I jumped into the water. Other examples include ‘milk’ and ‘courage.’)
Also, when a count noun is singular and indefinite, the article "a/an" is often used with it. (The real meaning of "a" is "one").
Children’s capacities and competencies to use and develop their imagination in all areas of learning by exploring their ideas. The early childhood professional’s creative skills are also part of planning for arts learning (music, dance, drama, media and visual art). Children’s artistic skills and thinking are promoted by exploring, expressing, making and responding in the art forms. Creative skills are not only linked to the arts; they are important in all areas of the curriculum.