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Leading literacy and numeracy improvement

Build coherent literacy and/or numeracy improvement cultures in your school.

Victorian Curriculum: Levels 7 - 10

Victorian Curriculum: Foundation to Level 6

Early childhood

Guide to the Literacy Teaching Toolkit

A guide has been designed to support school leaders and teachers to understand and use the toolkit:

Literacy Teaching Toolkit map: Foundation to Level 6
Literacy Teaching Toolkit map: Birth to 5 Years


The Department of Education and Training would like to thank the staff, students and children from the following schools, early childhood centres and academics for their contribution to the design and development of content for the Literacy Teaching Toolkit:


  • Early Childhood Education component developed by Associate Professor Patricia Eadie – Early Childhood Education & Care, Melbourne Graduate School of Education, University of Melbourne and Dr Nathaniel Swain, Early Childhood Education & Care, Melbourne Graduate School of Education, University of Melbourne
  • Primary component developed by Dr Carmel Sandiford – Language and Literacy Education, Melbourne Graduate School of Education, University of Melbourne, Linda Gawne – Language and Literacy Education, Melbourne Graduate School of Education, the University of Melbourne with Dr Annemaree O’Brien – Language and Literacy Education, Melbourne Graduate School of Education, University of Melbourne.
  • Coolaroo South Primary School
  • Footscray North Primary School
  • Ringwood Heights Primary School
  • Truganina College
  • University of Melbourne Early Learning Centre
  • Moonee Valley City Council (Milleara Integrated Centre for Children)
  • Clifton St Children’s Centre

The Department is also indebted to the following people who provided expert review of the early childhood content and videos:

  • Anne Bayetto  –  Flinders UniversityAssociate Professor
  • Sheila Degotardi – Macquarie University
  • Associate Professor Noella Mackenzie – Charles Sturt University
  • Andrea Nolan – Deakin University
  • Janet Scull – Monash University


Callow, J. (2013). The Shape of Text to Come: How Image and Text Work. Primary English Teaching Association (Australia) (PETAA).

Christie, F., & Martin, J. R. (Eds.). (2007). Language, knowledge and pedagogy: Functional linguistic and sociological perspectives. London and Oakville: Continuum.

Christie, F. & Derewianka, B. (2008). School Discourse: Learning to write across the years of schooling. London: Continuum.

Cox, R. (2015). Contextualising multilingualism in Australia today. English in Australia, 50(1), 13-20.

Cummins, J. (1998). Beyond adversarial discourse: Searching for common ground in the education of bilingual students. Presentation to the California State Board of Education. Sacramento, California.

Dempster, N., Konza, D., Robson, G., Gaffney, M., Lock, G., & McKennariey, K. (2012) Principals as literacy leaders: Confident, credible and connected. Canberra, ACT: Australian Primary Principals Association.

Fang, Z. (2016). Teaching close reading with complex texts across content areas. Research in the Teaching of English, 51(1), 106-116.

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Hattie, J. (2016). Visible learning for literacy, grades K-12: implementing the practices that work best to accelerate student learning. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Literacy.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement.  Routledge UK.

Hattie, J. (2013). Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning. Routledge UK

Jewitt, C.  (2008). Multimodality and Literacy. School Classrooms. Review of Research in Education, Vol. 32, pp. 241–267.

Kalantzis, M., Cope, B., Chan, E., & Dalley-Trim, L. (2016). Literacies. Port Melbourne, VIC, Australia: Cambridge University Press.

Konza, D. (2014). Teaching Reading: Why the “Fab Five” should be the “Big Six”. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(12).

Kress, G. (2010). Multimodality: a social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. London; New York: Routledge.

Kress, G., & van Leeuwen, T. (2006). Reading images: The grammar of visual design (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Luke, A. (2014). On explicit teaching and direct instruction. ALEA ‘Hot Topic’. Australian Literacy Educators’ Association

Myhill, D., Jones, S. & Watson, A. (2013). Grammar matters: How teachers’ grammatical knowledge impacts the teaching of writing. Teaching and Teacher Education, 36, 77-91. National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy (Australia) (2005)

National Reading Panel (U.S.), & National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.). (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel – Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health.

New London Group. (2000). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. In B. Cope, & M. Kalantzis (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social futures. Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan.

Paris, S. (2005). Reinterpreting the development of reading skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 40(2), 184-202.

Snow, C.E. (2004). What counts as literacy in early childhood? In K. McCartney & D. Phillips (Eds.), Handbook of Early Child Development (pp. 274–293). Oxford: Blackwell.

Snow, C. & O’Connor, C. (2016). Close reading and far-reaching classroom discussion: Fostering a vital connection. Journal of Education, 196(1), 1-8.​​​​​​