Pedagogical model

While FISO focuses on school improvement, the pedagogical model underpins teacher practice improvement. It recognises the vital role teachers play in improving student outcomes.

Overview

When implemented together with the practice principles, the pedagogical model enables teachers to maintain a line of sight between their own professional development and school-wide improvement based on FISO.

The pedagogical model is:

  • embedded in the Victorian teaching and learning model that encorporates the vision for learning, practice principles and HITS
  • focused on teacher practice as the main contributor to improved student learning outcomes
  • improvement-focused to assist teachers with their professional learning, including designing their PD goals
  • adaptive and can be modified to fit specific school and subject contexts
  • flexible, so teachers can move in and out of different domains, depending on the context
  • evolving and will be expanded through showcasing best practice across Victorian government schools.

The pedagogical model is the final piece in the Victorian teaching and learning model.

Get started with the pedagogical model

The pedagogical model resource includes information on getting started with using the model to plan, reflect upon and improve teaching practice.

This resource includes:

  • succinct guidance on implementing five domains of the model
  • bite sized insights that enable you to focus on one or more domains, and to progressively build expertise
  • scalable possibilities, allowing individual teachers, professional learning communities, and whole schools, to set goals and actions centred on the pedagogical model domains.

Victorian government schools and teachers can order hard copies of the Pedagogical Model at our resources for Victorian government schools page.

Domains

This resource unpacks the five domains of the pedagogical model as a separate section, allowing teachers to focus their efforts and engage deeply with each domain. In practice, the domains do not exist in isolation. Teachers will switch between domains in response to student needs and learning program requirements.

The model consists of five domains:

Engage

Continuum of practice

Each continuum level of teacher proficiency assumes proficiency at the previous level. Teachers can use each domain’s continuum to reflect on their practice, make judgements about specific areas of teaching and set targets to move to the next level of proficiency.

Graduate teachers:

  • build safe learning environments that support students’ wellbeing
  • set learning goals that explain what students need to understand and what they must be able to do
  • communicate high expectations and promote effort and hard work
  • consider students’ backgrounds, interests and prior knowledge
  • demonstrate knowledge of contemporary resources to enrich teaching and learning programs and to enhance student engagement
  • engage with individual students and respond to their academic, social and emotional needs
  • communicate with parents/carers and seek their knowledge and feedback.

 

Proficient teachers:

  • collaboratively develop and implement protocols to build a respectful, trusting learning environment in which students feel confident to contribute
  • set explicit, challenging and achievable learning goals for all students
  • develop and maintain a culture of high expectations and empower students to present their own ideas
  • consider students’ backgrounds, interests and prior knowledge to create authentic and meaningful learning opportunities
  • provide opportunities for students to initiate and assist in planning school events
  • build connectedness with parents/carers and the broader community to strengthen social ties, care and support for students.

Highly accomplished teachers

  • co-design behaviour protocols with students to maintain a productive and safe learning environment
  • share ideas about how to involve students in curriculum planning, engage students in selecting tools and resources and negotiate learning goals
  • collaborate with colleagues and students to develop and maintain a culture of high expectations for all students by setting appropriate and challenging learning goals
  • model and share with colleagues strategies for maintaining an energised and focused learning environment
  • develop and share strategies to build students’ capacity to participate in wholeschool decision-making
  • support their colleagues to collect, analyse and share feedback from students and parents/carers to inform future planning.

Lead teachers:

  • model and demonstrate how to collaboratively develop shared norms and responsibilities for reinforcing protocols with students
  • lead colleagues to evaluate the appropriateness of learning goals to improve student achievement and engagement
  • work with colleagues to select a range of tools to receive regular student feedback on classroom climate
  • lead processes to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to raise student engagement
  • initiate, lead and evaluate processes to build students’ capacity to participate in whole school decision-making
  • strengthen social ties, care and support for students, teachers lead processes to monitor and evaluate connectedness with parents/carers and the broader community.   

Teachers know their students well and engage them in building supportive, inclusive and stimulating learning environments. Teachers motivate and empower students to manage their own learning and develop agency.

Explore

Continuum of practice

Each continuum level of teacher proficiency assumes proficiency at the previous level. Teachers can use each domain’s continuum to reflect on their practice, make judgements about specific areas of teaching and set targets to move to the next level of proficiency.

Graduate teachers:

  • demonstrate knowledge and understanding of strategies to identify prior knowledge
  • establish routines and provide a schedule to support time management
  • demonstrate knowledge of a variety of teaching strategies and resources to accommodate the range of abilities and interests
  • implement strategies for using ICT to expand learning opportunities for students
  • use guiding questions to assist students to select relevant information
  • ask students to explain their understanding of key concepts and ideas to identify misconceptions
  • support specific groups of students (ATSI students, students learning English as an additional language, and students with additional needs) with appropriate resources to tailor, support and modify learning goals.

Proficient teachers:

  • ensure the learning program is relevant to students’ needs, interests and learning goals
  • plan and deliver structured lessons, monitor learning, adapt routines and adjust time allocated to maximise student learning opportunities and understanding
  • use a range of teaching strategies that leverage and develop different skills and abilities
  • assist students to choose appropriate resources and processes to collect information for their learning program
  • use effective teaching strategies to integrate ICT into learning programs in ways that make selected content relevant and meaningful
  • use a range of question types to engage students and stimulate further investigation
  • support students to identify and explore real world issues and problems.

Highly accomplished teachers:

  • model and share strategies for reinforcing routines, scaffolding new learning, and using smooth transitions to optimise time on task and classroom climate
  • prompt students to select tools and strategies appropriate for documenting and evaluating the information they have collected
  • explain reasons for using particular strategies to help students organise information and encourage students to reflect on which strategies are most effective for them
  • model high-level knowledge and skills and work with colleagues to use current ICT in ways that improve their practice and make content relevant and meaningful
  • share strategies that encourage students to share their learning, teach, question and challenge each other
  • support colleagues to integrate learning areas and capabilities and support students to identify learning connections across a range of contexts
  • empower students to make decisions based on the knowledge of how they learn.

Lead teachers:

  • initiate and lead colleagues to implement strategies that support students to exercise authentic agency, question and form conclusions about the value of their learning
  • model and share strategies that challenge misconceptions through using specific tasks and questions to extend student thinking
  • lead and support colleagues to select and use ICT with effective teaching strategies to expand learning opportunities and content knowledge for all students
  • initiate and lead processes that enable students to negotiate assessment methods and criteria matched to their learning goals
  • use evidence to monitor and evaluate the impact of different lesson structures
  • initiate and lead processes where teachers and students collaborate in learning partnerships in and beyond the school

Teachers present challenging tasks to support students in generating and investigating questions, gathering relevant information and developing ideas. They help students expand their perspectives and preconceptions, understand learning tasks and prepare to navigate their own learning.

Explain

Continuum of practice

Each continuum level of teacher proficiency assumes proficiency at the previous level. Teachers can use each domain’s continuum to reflect on their practice, make judgements about specific areas of teaching and set targets to move to the next level of proficiency.

Graduate teachers:

  • demonstrate knowledge and understanding across learning areas of developmental learning programs based on the Victorian curriculum capabilities
  • explicitly teach new knowledge and skills
  • explain links between new content and existing knowledge
  • develop learning programs that support students to connect their learning with real-world contexts
  • demonstrate knowledge and understanding of worked examples to introduce new knowledge and skills
  • provide opportunities for students to develop explanations of the content and practise new skills and processes
  • monitor students’ understanding and adapt their teaching strategy when required
  • allow students to share and reflect on their ideas and structure activities in small groups.

Proficient teachers:

  • collaboratively design learning programs that integrate the Victorian curriculum content descriptions, and achievement standards for learning areas and capabilities
  • explain relationships between ideas and help students connect new and existing knowledge
  • determine students’ current levels of understanding and introduce new content accordingly
  • regularly use worked examples to introduce new knowledge and skills, and to scaffold student learning
  • draw out students’ misconceptions and frame questions to challenge students’ ideas
  • continuously monitor students’ learning and adapt routines to maximise student learning opportunities and understanding.

Highly accomplished teachers:

  • support colleagues to develop sequenced learning programs that are scaffolded to promote student independence in learning
  • structure learning sequences to provide multiple opportunities for students to consolidate new knowledge and practise new skills
  • support colleagues to monitor students’ progress, and adjust instruction to meet individual student needs
  • model effective practice and support colleagues to develop individual learning strategies and assessment rubrics in collaboration with students
  • explain reasons for using particular strategies and encourage students to reflect on which strategies are most effective for them
  • support colleagues to develop and implement protocols for group work that build student understanding of how effective groups operate.

Lead teachers:

  • lead work in PLCs to design learning programs that integrate the Victorian curriculum content descriptions, and achievement standards for learning areas and capabilities
  • lead initiatives to engage students in deconstructing learning tasks and assessment criteria, enabling them to assess their current knowledge, gain deeper understanding of new content, and monitor learning progress
  • lead colleagues to design learning programs with multiple entry points, progression tracks, and aspirational, individualised learning goals
  • lead colleagues to determine students’ level of understanding, and select and introduce content at individual point of need in response to student explanations
  • initiate strategies and lead colleagues to consistently structure learning around differentiated group tasks that require students to work collaboratively.  

Teachers explicitly teach relevant knowledge, concepts and skills in multiple ways to connect new and existing knowledge. They monitor student progress in learning and provide structured opportunities for practising new skills and developing agency.

Elaborate

Continuum of practice

Each continuum level of teacher proficiency assumes proficiency at the previous level. Teachers can use each domain’s continuum to reflect on their practice, make judgements about specific areas of teaching and set targets to move to the next level of proficiency.

Graduate teachers:

  • demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the Victorian curriculum capabilities across learning areas teachers demonstrate knowledge and understanding of surface and deep learning
  • develop students’ critical, creative and higher order thinking skills
  • demonstrate knowledge and understanding of effective questioning to engage students in higher order thinking
  • demonstrate knowledge and understanding of effective questioning to engage students in higher order thinking
  • allow students to share and reflect on their ideas with their peers
  • monitor student understanding and provide appropriate feedback referenced against assessment criteria.

Proficient teachers:

  • enrich and deepen learning programs through integrating the Victorian curriculum capabilities across learning areas
  • provide examples of concepts in similar contexts to assist students to apply their learning
  • support students to form theories, find patterns and make connections in their learningTeachers design investigations of current issues that require students to compare and contrast different perspectives
  • use questioning to probe student thinking and prompt them to justify their responses
  • monitor student understanding, provide feedback and adapt instruction based on group needs.

Highly accomplished teachers:

  • support colleagues to identify learning connections across a range of content areas and real-life contexts
  • support colleagues to design learning programs that are intellectually challenging, developmental and scaffolded to meet students’ needs
  • support colleagues to develop conversation protocols that support all students to make meaningful contributions
  • support colleagues to deliver challenging activities that involve student choice, deep understanding, discipline rich inquiry, problem solving and collaboration
  • implement strategies that support students to share their learning, support and challenge each other
  • monitor student progress, intervene to address individual needs and provide feedback to enable students to improve their learning.

Lead teachers

  • lead processes to monitor and evaluate the integration of the Victorian curriculum capabilities across learning areas
  • lead colleagues to design, implement and monitor learning programs that explicitly build deep levels of thinking and application
  • lead colleagues to support students to use evidence to challenge assumptions underpinning principles when extending their learning to new contexts
  • lead initiatives to advance students’ independence in learning and prepare them to undertake self-directed inquiry
  • lead processes to empower students to take action to develop innovative solutions that address local and global issues
  • lead processes that use formal and informal assessment, student feedback and teacher collaboration for evaluation and planning, ensuring all students are engaged, challenged and extended. 

Teachers challenge students to move from surface to deep learning, building student ability to transfer and generalise their learning. They support students to be reflective, questioning and self-monitoring learners.

Evaluate

Continuum of practice

Each continuum level of teacher proficiency assumes proficiency at the previous level. Teachers can use each domain’s continuum to reflect on their practice, make judgements about specific areas of teaching and set targets to move to the next level of proficiency.

 Graduate teachers:

  • demonstrate knowledge and understanding of assessment strategies that meet the achievement standards for learning areas and capabilities
  • use explicit assessment criteria to assess student progress referenced against curriculum standards and the learning goals
  • continuously monitor student learning, integrating evidence from formal and informal assessments
  • provide students with targeted feedback on achievement relative to their learning goals and their needs
  • communicate with parents/carers to provide regular updates on student progress
  • use student achievement data to guide their own professional learning
  • build new knowledge and skills through research, peer observation and coaching.

Proficient teachers:

  • ensure assessment strategies meet the achievement standards for learning areas and capabilities
  • design authentic, fit-for-purpose assessments based on the learning objectives and students’ individual needs and abilities
  • work with colleagues to develop assessment rubrics with explicit assessment criteria and make consistent judgements validated by moderation
  • use multiple forms of formative assessment and provide feedback to students to help them reflect on the learning processes and the impact of effort on achievement, identify their strengths and areas for improvement, and form new learning goals
  • analyse student data, reflect on the effectiveness of their own teaching and identify appropriate  professional learning.

Highly accomplished teachers

  • collaborate to plan learning programs, integrating multiple forms of fit-for-purpose formative and summative assessments
  • demonstrate high-level knowledge and skills in monitoring student progress, providing feedback and adjusting instruction to support and extend all students
  • support colleagues to build student capacity to develop and use assessment rubrics to monitor their own learning progress
  • support colleagues to implement student self-assessment and peer assessment, giving students opportunities to review samples of work, identify evidence of learning and exchange constructive feedback
  • support colleagues to trial new practices and evaluate their effectiveness using feedback from students, colleagues and parents/carers.

Lead teachers:

  • lead the development of multilevel learning programs, integrating multiple forms of fit-for-purpose formative and summative assessments
  • lead colleagues to critically review and improve their assessment strategies
  • lead colleagues to use feedback from students, colleagues and parents/carers to improve assessment strategies
  • help colleagues to set aspirational goals that extend students beyond their current performance level
  • lead a whole-school approach to developing evaluative practice, prioritising time and resources for teams to scrutinise their impact on students’ progress
  • lead processes to analyse a range of student data for strategic planning of teachers’ individual and collective professional learning.   

Teachers use multiple forms of assessment and feedback to help students improve their learning and develop agency. They monitor student progress and analyse data to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their teaching practices, identify areas for improvement, and address student individual needs.

Using the model

Before engaging with the pedagogical model, schools should undertake a reflection on their school-wide practice using the following practice principles and self-reflection tools:

  • practice principle 1: High expectations for every student promote intellectual engagement and self-awareness.
  • practice principle 4: Curriculum planning and implementation engages and challenges students.
  • practice principle 6: Rigorous assessment practices and feedback inform teaching and learning.

Schools

Schools that are looking to:

  • adopt a new pedagogical model, can use the pedagogical model as a part of the Victorian teaching and learning model to develop a high performance learning culture and establish consistently high quality teaching practice across the school
  • update the implementation of their current pedagogical model, can use the pedagogical model as a part of the Victorian teaching and learning model to benchmark and improve the quality and consistency of teaching practice across the school.

School leaders

All school leaders can use the model to support teachers in their development, including:

  • principals
  • assistant principals
  • learning specialists
  • leading teachers
  • literacy leaders
  • professional learning community (PLC) instructional leaders.

Use the model to:

  • guide teachers’ reflections on their current teaching practices
  • assist teachers in evaluating their performance against each domain’s continum of practice
  • specify areas for improvement.

School leaders can drive school-wide improvement by using the pedagogical model to refresh and deepen teachers’ pedagogical knowledge.

Teachers

The pedagogical model places student learning at the centre of planning and implementation. It supports teachers to design engaging and challenging learning experiences through planned integration of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment.

Teachers build professional skills and knowledge around curriculum, pedagogy and assessment to continuously enhance their practice and improve student learning. Developing expertise across those essential interrelated components builds practice excellence.

The Victorian Curriculum F-10 defines the learning progressions that guide student learning growth. It is the role of teachers and school leaders to:

  • create engaging learning and teaching programs
  • draw on their knowledge of local context, effective pedagogy and rigorous assessment
  • ensure that students progress along this continuum.

PLCs provide excellent opportunities for teachers to use the pedagogical model in many contexts, to:

  • review their learning programs
  • guide self and group-reflection
  • set professional development goals
  • plan and implement the specific steps to achieve those goals.

Get advice

For more information about the pedagogical model, email: professional.practice@edumail.vic.gov.au ​