Secondary Years 7-10 - Writing Stage S4

Indicators of progress – Stage S4: Texts and responses to texts

At the end of Stage S4, students can routinely write the following kinds of texts and respond in the following ways to texts they have read or heard:

  • write an extensive range of imaginative and informative texts from across the mainstream curriculum after appropriate teacher modelling
  • write extended personal, and imaginative texts showing an awareness of audience, purpose and interest such as personal diary, recount, a range of responses to a text under study, contributions to an online discussion group with teacher prompts
  • write creative texts showing plot development and character portrayal
  • use metaphors and similes in narratives
  • write an extended argument or discussion on a familiar issue, showing supporting evidence, a development of ideas and rebuttal
  • write longer descriptive and information texts, e.g. reports
  • demonstrate an ability to analyse issues as represented in graphics, visuals or language
  • write extended factual texts, e.g. reports, explanations, conveying a variety of aspects of topics from across the curriculum
  • incorporate language and ideas from selected sources drawn from classroom activities
  • make summaries by writing sentences expanded from key words.

Indicators of progress – Stage S4: Cultural conventions of language use

At the end of Stage S4, students’ understanding of the contexts and purposes of texts they write is shown when they:

  • draw on an understanding of different text types to draft writing taking account of purpose and audience
  • understand how writing contexts influence function and form
  • recognise inappropriate use of register, such as the use of colloquial terms in formal writing, e.g. when formally giving an opinion
  • use appropriate register for the intended audience
  • sustain register use in writing
  • redraft writing making it more appropriate to its purpose and audience, e.g. redraft a personal recount to edit out unnecessary detail
  • identify common aspects of spoken and written language and formal/informal tone in registers
  • use common euphemisms and imagery, e.g. passed away.

Indicators of progress – Stage S4: Linguistic structures and features

At the end of Stage S4, students’ understanding of the linguistic structures and features of the texts they write is shown when they:

  • use knowledge of the English grammar system to express school-based language functions such as comparison/contrast, cause and effect, problem solving, hypothesising, and probability
  • write a range of extended texts following the structures and language features appropriate to the text type
  • use direct and indirect speech, including quotations, appropriately
  • use developing control of appropriate grammatical structures to broaden the ways to analyse, argue, persuade, describe, classify, explain, in appropriate text types
  • write showing a control of a wide range of grammatical features although some minor errors may be evident
  • write with an increasing control over fluency, although some minor errors in accuracy may be evident
  • use an extended range of cohesive devices to improve fluency, e.g. connectives such as however, nevertheless, although, finally, in my view, and prepositions and pronouns
  • use relative clauses and adjectival expressions for descriptive purposes
  • include a wide range of modals
  • use common linking expressions, relative clauses, conditionals, time sequence references, modals, present and past tense with increasing control
  • combine simple sentences into complex sentences and show embedding of language in common structures, e.g. clause reduced to a phrase
  • use modelled reflective language in letters, journals and personal recounts, and modification devices, e.g. I think sometimes
  • use an expanded vocabulary and show use of vocabulary for subject matter including subject-specific terms and some antonyms, synonyms, abstract nouns
  • show use of a broad vocabulary appropriate to changing social contexts and academic learning
  • use dialogue, direct speech, reported speech, apostrophes in contractions, exclamation marks, and commas to separate clauses.

Indicators of progress – Stage S4: Maintaining and negotiating communication

At the end of Stage S4, students may use the following strategies to assist them to write texts:

  • with teacher or peer support, plan, review and redraft writing to enhance fluency, accuracy, and appropriateness to purpose and audience
  • develop a clear plan of intention for an extended writing task
  • in response to teacher feedback and self-assessment, redraft their writing showing significant and appropriate changes and not just corrections of inaccuracies
  • take notes for references citing references and quotations
  • work collaboratively with peers to develop ideas, e.g. by brainstorming
  • edit texts and cooperate with group for planning writing
  • seek and respond to teacher feedback.