Secondary Years 7-10 - Reading Stage S4

Indicators of progress – Stage S4: Texts and responses to texts

At the end of Stage S4, students can routinely write the following kinds of texts and respond in the following ways to texts they have read or heard:
  • read independently, with essential understanding, a wide range of accessible mainstream texts and, with guidance, interpret the texts to provide a variety of responses
  • identify main and supporting points in a variety of texts for note taking, retelling and writing of summaries
  • distinguish between main and sub-themes in factual and literary texts
  • explain the gist of technical and analytical texts
  • extract and manipulate relevant information from a range of graphic representations, including articles with tables, graphs and diagrams
  • extract and manipulate key ideas from a text for problem solving
  • compare and make judgements about different texts, e.g. on the same topic by different authors
  • comprehend texts even if not familiar with the topic and when the text is lengthy
  • interpret a text at more than one level, e.g. ‘read between the lines’
  • discuss imaginative texts with regard to key aspects, such as treatment of character development, issues and resolution of conflict or complication
  • describe and discuss mood and setting in a narrative
  • describe and discuss the emotions and motivation of characters in narratives
  • hypothesise about author, ideas, events, characters, using information from the text
  • take notes, with teacher guidance, expressing an understanding of key ideas and information from short and accessible media articles and other texts in use across the curriculum
  • select and analyse information from texts for a particular purpose.

Indicators of progress – Stage S4: Cultural conventions of language use

At the end of Stage S4, students’ understanding of the contexts and purposes of the texts they read is shown when they:

  • interpret a range of texts from across the curriculum in terms of their purpose, audience and context
  • analyse and interpret language choices and forms of particular text types
  • discuss specific characteristics and features of texts in terms of their purpose, audience and context, e.g. comment on the informal style of writing in online discussion groups
  • show awareness of how different people may have different interpretations of events and issues in a text, e.g. influence of gender, cultural background, class, age
  • identify the writer’s implied stance
  • identify how the culturally-based values and attitudes which underpin issues and language in texts reflect author’s views and bias
  • describe how shades of meaning are expressed through choice of synonyms, e.g. strolled, walked
  • respond to the subtleties of humour, idioms and metaphors.

Indicators of progress – Stage S4: Linguistic structures and features

At the end of Stage S4, students’ understanding of the linguistic structures and features of the texts they read is shown when they:

  • show an awareness of the role of the structures and features in a range of accessible mainstream texts
  • examine, through guided activities, the role of the structures and features of mainstream texts from across the curriculum
  • demonstrate understanding of complex language such as embedded clauses, noun phrases, words expressing degrees of probability, e.g. if the temperature rises, the polar caps may melt, resulting in …; the gap between east and west has …
  • recognise and follow complex text connectives used to link ideas across sentences and paragraphs, e.g. nevertheless, although
  • have some difficulty with implicit cohesive devices such as nominalisation and  ‘buried’ cohesive devices
  • read with understanding texts with varied sentences beginnings, new vocabulary, some subject specific vocabulary and figurative language
  • interpret unfamiliar examination instructions providing adequate time is allowed
  • have a broad technical vocabulary across their subject areas but may still have difficulties with more abstract vocabulary, e.g. effect, invert, trace, determine
  • interpret familiar, simple and complex task instructions even dual purpose instructions requiring creative use and manipulation of genres.

Indicators of progress – Stage S4: Maintaining and negotiating communication

At the end of Stage S4, students may use the following strategies to assist them to read and comprehend texts:

  • find and organise information from a range of reference sources and employ strategies for interpreting unfamiliar texts in common use across the curriculum
  • take organised notes that identify main ideas and relevant supporting detail in factual and non-factual mainstream texts
  • locate information on a research topic using library resources and computer-based materials, e.g. the internet and appropriate search engines
  • with guidance, select and use supporting material within a text to justify a response
  • use their own ideas to expand upon information gathered, acknowledging sources
  • read a text thoroughly for a complex set of information, e.g. to find the reasons the writer offers in support of a particular view
  • adjust reading style in response to the demands of the text and reading task, e.g. scan the text to get particular information, skim the text to get the gist
  • use a range of strategies, e.g. knowledge of vocabulary and text structures to read authentic, unfamiliar texts and respond with some understanding
  • use contextual cues to interpret difficult words.