Secondary Years 7-10 - Speaking and Listening Stage S1
Indicators of progress – Stage S1: Texts and responses to texts
At the end of Stage S1, students can routinely use spoken English to do the following things:
- understand enough to extract essential information, such as gist and many details, from short, simple texts relevant to their personal experience, e.g. in short conversations
- depend on slow careful speech, face to face contact and familiar topics
- begin to understand context-reduced spoken texts, i.e. are less dependent on immediate contextual support such as pictures
- follow simple oral instructions with several steps
- respond to simple controlled English which relates to common, familiar school routines
- comprehend a simple oral text, e.g. instructions read by teacher
- identify single items of vocabulary, from short, familiar spoken texts supported by the context or the teacher
- respond to word stress, rhythm and intonation to work out the most important elements of communication
- respond appropriately to a range of commonly encountered questions using short, familiar formulae or expressions, e.g. simple recounts, descriptions, instructions
- may recognise a few fragments of a conversation between native speakers, but would not normally be able to identify topic or participate in any way
- understand a simple recount from a peer based on a classroom written model
- express meanings through short, simple utterances, using familiar or practised vocabulary
- exchange information in an unrehearsed oral interaction, e.g. respond to questions about name, country of origin from a visitor to the classroom
- negotiate transactions in different contexts, e.g. ask to borrow a book from the teacher, from the library, from a friend
- give simple oral instructions with several steps
- recount a short familiar event, in detail, attempting to use past tense with variable accuracy
- transfer some vocabulary or structures learnt in immediate-needs topics to subject-based topics
- produce or comprehend short utterances such as statements, questions, instructions, requests and commands
- correctly use single clause utterances to express a variety of language functions
- attempt multiple clause utterances to express a variety of language functions, e.g. Can I leave at 2:30 because I have appointment?
- contribute with relevance and reasonable comprehensibility to short dialogue/classroom interaction on a familiar topic
- respond appropriately to a range of commonly encountered questions using short, familiar formulae or expressions, e.g. simple recounts, descriptions, instructions.
Indicators of progress – Stage S1: Cultural conventions of language use
At the end of Stage S1, students’ understanding of the contexts and purposes of spoken texts is shown when they:
- understand key vocabulary with contextual or teacher support
- observe and imitate social behaviour in speaking English
- attend to what others are saying
- respond to tone of voice and changes in intonation, e.g. feelings, simple humour
- experiment with key routine social words and short phrases they hear
- use familiar formulaic expressions to greet and respond to greetings, e.g. How are you today? Good thanks
- use simple polite expressions appropriately, e.g. please, thank you.
- speak differently in greeting a teacher or friend in the yard
- use appropriate structure to open and close conversations
- ask questions about concepts such as colour, time and place
- show an understanding of when to use common polite forms, e.g. Excuse me Miss, Would you like one?
- have very limited register flexibility but may demonstrate knowledge of some features of a specialist register experienced in the classroom
- transfer knowledge of the structure of spoken texts and discourse patterns from their first language to English, though there may be some cultural difference, which can cause some difficulty, e.g. call the teacher ‘ Teacher’ rather than by name or ‘Miss’
- are able to use basic collaborative language in co-operative group work, e.g. for affirming (yes, good) disagreeing (no, no good), staging language (next, OK).
Indicators of progress – Stage S1: Linguistic structures and features
At the end of Stage S1, students’ understanding of the linguistic structures and features of spoken English is shown when they:
- recognise when a question is being asked and attempt to answer in existing English, e.g. to give a reason or express an opinion
- identify key vocabulary and ideas
- comprehend and use simple vocabulary and structures presented and practised in class
- use features of the English tense system, e.g. past tense in recounts, imperative in procedures, with intensive context-enriched ESL support
- use present simple and present continuous tenses correctly
- attempt to use familiar irregular and regular past tense, e.g. went, saw, walked
- choose appropriate syntactic form – question, statement, command
- use simple interrogatives, e.g. who, where, what, when, why
- use simple possessive pronouns, e.g. my/your/his/her
- use and respond to yes/no questions, e.g. yes, I am, no, I’m not
- use common contractions, e.g. I’m/she’s
- use plurals of countable nouns, e.g. books/desks
- use some irregular plurals of countable nouns, e.g. sheep, children, ladies, men
- use some simple quantifiers, e.g. some/a few/many/any
- use subject and object pronouns appropriately, e.g. John saw her. She saw John.
- use simple cohesive devices, such as personal pronouns, e.g. he/she/it
- use common prepositions of place and time, e.g. in, on, at, in Melbourne, on Monday
- use introductory it and there, e.g. It is hot; there is/are a book/s
- sequence events chronologically using time markers
- use stress or intonation appropriately in simple utterances, e.g. use rising intonation when asking simple questions, stress key words in short utterances
- use simple coordinating conjuctions, e.g. and, but, and some simple subordinating conjunctions, e.g. after, because, to link clauses
- negate using mostly correct forms such as ‘I don’t like maths’, ‘She hasn’t got a sister’
- use some different question forms (but not yet tag questions)
- attempt to extend utterances but have some difficulty sustaining coherent structures unless they are well rehearsed.
Indicators of progress – Stage S1: Maintaining and negotiating communication
At the end of Stage S1, students may use the following strategies to maintain and negotiate spoken communication:
- imitate short utterances of others and memorise a number of formulaic expressions, e.g. Excuse me, Miss
- are beginning to be able to transfer their first language cognitive academic language skills to their learning in English, and to draw on their first language content background knowledge
- use self correction and peer assessment to check appropriateness of forms
- transfer knowledge of the structure of spoken texts and discourse patterns from their first language to English, though there may be some cultural difference, which can cause some difficulty.
- use simplified utterances rather than sentences to convey meaning, e.g. Car broken
- use circumlocution when the correct word is not known, e.g. ‘a car for fly’ instead of ‘a plane’
- transfer some simple language structures to other contexts, e.g. We go to sport on Monday. We go to Art on Tuesday. We go to beach on Saturday.
- use non-verbal strategies, such as gesture or mime, to elicit support from the listener
- use existing English in different contexts to perform different functions, e.g. 'Go home Miss.' to mean 'May I go home?' or 'He’s gone home.'
- use sentence patterns from first language to communicate ideas, e.g. ‘the house white’, ‘I very like swimming’
- apart from formulaic expressions, speak using fragmented utterances as they transfer and combine learned patterns, e.g. 'Yes, I have new friend … many new friend.', 'Because different my language I can’t understand many thing.'
- begin to speak more confidently and quickly, which may affect intelligibility due to unsure stress and intonation, taking breaths between words, not running on words, or pronouncing final consonants
- draw to a large degree on their first language, which may be demonstrated in pronunciation, stress and intonation patterns and in some hesitation.