Lower Primary Years P-2 - Speaking and Listening Stage A1
Indicators of progress – Stage A1: texts and responses to texts
At the end of Stage A1, students can routinely use spoken English to do the following things:
- display attentive listening behaviour, i.e. sit on floor and listen for sustained periods with some visual support
- follow simple instructions in familiar school routines, relying on key words, non-verbal language and context
- respond appropriately with simple non-verbal language to comments, or indicate non-comprehension, e.g. smile when greeted, shake or nod head
- participate in simple, familiar songs, rhymes and chants
- check on understanding of simple, familiar instructions and routines, e.g. T: It’s playtime. S: Go outside?
- identify single items of information from short spoken texts, pictures or diagrams in a known context, e.g. number, colour, name, ‘Point to the three little pigs.’
- give some basic personal information, using learned formulas or brief answers, e.g. My name is ..., I’m a boy/girl ...
- expand on basic personal information when prompted, supported and given adequate time
- make simple requests or express basic needs using learned sentence patterns or 2–3 word utterances, e.g. May I have a drink, please?, It’s home time, Go now?
- use learnt phrases in play, e.g. give me, stop it, I don’t like
- usually respond to questions with a single word or phrase, but can make longer utterances by substituting words in known sentence patterns
- negotiate simple social or learning activities by suggesting, initiating or directing, e.g. Play football? Stop that!
Indicators of progress – Stage A1: cultural conventions of language use
At the end of Stage A1, students’ understanding of the contexts and purposes of spoken texts is shown when they:
- distinguish English from other languages, e.g. on hearing English, respond in English
- tune in to the particular sounds of English, e.g. recognise rhyming words in a listening game, respond to known words in texts
- recognise that some particular words, gestures or intonations may be appropriate or inappropriate in certain contexts
- use acceptable social formulas and gestures and interact appropriately in context, e.g. thank you, excuse me, please
- recognise that conversation breakdown is not acceptable and repeat, re-pronounce or self-correct words in order to help the other person understand
- can tell when a response is required and attempt to respond either non-verbally or using known words
- can appear to be interacting appropriately by copying the actions of other students.
Indicators of progress – Stage A1: linguistic structures and features
At the end of Stage A1, students’ understanding of the linguistic structures and features of spoken English is shown when they:
- understand gender in common pronouns and possessive adjectives
- respond to key words in a range of common spoken instructions, e.g. Shut the door
- understand the tense of statements or instructions, mostly through time references, e.g. We went yesterday, Tomorrow we will go, Now we can eat lunch
- have difficulty understanding discussions between teacher and learners at native speaker speed
- create original utterances by substituting new words in learned patterns or formulas, e.g. It’s home time. It’s go time.
- use words from word sets related to need, interest or experience, e.g. family, school, colours, numbers, days, months
- use single word or phrase response to questions, e.g. Yes, No, I don’t know
- use a range of formulas appropriately for different purposes and functions, e.g. What’s the time? Oh, no! Very good!
- construct simple subject-verb-object sentences, largely using present tense, e.g. We buy house
- demonstrate variable placement of common adjectives to describe or add emphasis, e.g. big truck, car blue
- use some grammatical patterns to create new meanings, e.g. played, eated, goed; to the farm, to the Australia.
- use intonation to enhance meaning or to distinguish statements from questions
- use comprehensible pronunciation
- speak with breakdowns in fluency and meaning due to limited English resources
- express negation using ‘no’ or ‘not’ e.g. I no like vegetable, I not go
- use 'telegraphic' speech patterns, where function words may be omitted or not used correctly, e.g. 'Me go to shopping and buyed many thing.’
Indicators of progress – Stage A1: maintaining and negotiating communication
At the end of Stage A1, students may use the following strategies to maintain and negotiate spoken communication:
- listen to a sustained text, focusing on visual support, e.g. instructions and demonstrations about an art activity
- question to check meaning, to clarify, or to confirm, e.g. T: Stick it in your book, S: language book?
- check understanding of classroom conversations or instructions by asking other first language speakers to clarify
- use strategies such as watching and listening to what other students are doing, following them, watching the teacher’s face
- ask for attention or assistance from the teacher or a friend, e.g. check understanding, ask for repetition
- use non-verbal language to sustain interaction with others, e.g. nod, smile, laugh, gesture
- substitute words or manipulate learned formulas to create new phrases e.g. in chants
- borrow key words from previous speaker, e.g. Child 1: Do you want to play chasey? Child 2: Yeah, play chasey
- imitate pronunciation, stress and intonation patterns, e.g. from stories, songs, rhymes, media
- rehearse or role play using formulas or short exchanges, e.g. from popular stories or songs; ‘Little pig, little pig let me in.’
- provide the initial context for a conversation and then rely on another speaker to provide appropriate words in English, e.g. read with the teacher, interact through gestures, facial expressions, point to illustrations, repeat words.