To help prevent and control the transmission of infectious diseases in schools, and to promote health within the school community .
Schools have a legal responsibility to help manage infectious diseases in their facilities.
Schools also have an important role to play in supporting the prevention and control of transmission of infectious diseases through:
abiding by legislated requirements for school exclusion, infectious disease notification and immunisation status recording
supporting the personal hygiene routines of students, for example, provision of hand hygiene facilities
ensuring procedures are in place to safely manage the handling of spills of blood and other body fluids or substances.
Note: Primary responsibility for the prevention and control of infectious diseases lies with individuals, families and public health authorities. Schools are not expected to provide expert advice or treat students, which is the role of medical practitioners and health authorities as appropriate.
Hand hygiene is a general term referring to any action of hand cleansing. It includes hand washing with soap and water and using antimicrobial hand rubs (for example, an alcohol-based hand rub). For more detailed information about hand hygiene, see: Personal Hygiene in Related policies
Infectious diseases are diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another.
Respiratory hygiene or cough etiquette are terms used to describe infection prevention measures. Practices include:
the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
using tissues and disposing
of them appropriately
attending to hand hygiene immediately after coughing, sneezing or blowing nose.
Standard precautions are the minimum infection prevention and control practices that must be used at all times for all people in all situations. The use of standard precautions aims to minimise and, where possible, eliminate the risk of transmission of infection.
Prevention of infectious diseases
The following table outlines the strategies and actions that schools are required to take to prevent the transmission of an infectious disease.
Support for immunisation programs
Schools have a role in helping health authorities and families prevent and control infectious diseases through the support of immunisation programs and through recording the immunisation status of each student. For more information, see the Immunisation policy.
Staff and students should treat all blood and other body fluids or substances as being potentially infectious and practice standard precautions whenever dealing with them.
Standard precautions include:
- hand hygiene, for more information, see the Personal Hygiene policy
- the use of personal protective equipment (for example, gloves and masks)
- safe handling and disposal of ‘sharps’, for more information, see the Syringe Disposals and Injuries policy
- respiratory hygiene.
|School education on hand hygiene|
Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures for reducing the spread of infection. Where appropriate, schools should incorporate the teaching of hand hygiene routines into the curriculum and daily school activities; see the Clean Hands curriculum resource
|Provision of soap|
Schools have a responsibility to provide soap and other hand hygiene consumables to support good hand hygiene.
Management of blood and other body fluid/substance exposures
Interaction between people at schools should minimise contact with body fluids and substances, including:
- blood (wet or dry)
- other body fluids or substances (other than sweat).
Schools should have appropriate personal protective equipment (for example, gloves and masks) available for staff to use when dealing with blood or body fluids/substances. Staff members and students should be familiar with and practice recommended standard precaution practices. For more information, see the Managing Open Wounds and Blood Spills policy
Control of transmission of infectious disease
The following table outlines the strategies and actions that schools are required to take to control transmission of infection when a case/s is identified.
Send unwell children home as soon as possible.
Ensure that unwell children do not attend your school. Isolate children who become unwell during the day and send the unwell child home as soon as possible.
Notification of infectious diseases
Primary schools are required to notify the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) immediately if a child is suspected of having pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal disease or polio, even if you believe a doctor has already done so.
Notification is through Communicable Disease Prevention and Control; telephone: 1300 651 160 (24 hours).
The role of the school, when a child is unwell is outlined on the DHHS website, see: Exclusion periods – Role of schools and child care services
Schools should also inform this Department of notifiable cases of infectious disease using the IRIS incident alert and include confirmation that DHHS has been notified.
Notification of other diseases is not required, however schools can contact the above phone number for further assistance or advice, or by email at: email@example.com (regularly monitored).
Exclusion of a child with an infectious disease: primary school students
Children with certain infectious diseases, and children who have been in contact with certain infectious diseases, are required to be excluded from school for a specified period. The DHHS School exclusion table identifies which infectious diseases require exclusion and for what period
Principals of primary students must be aware of the Public Health and Wellbeing Regulations 2009 exclusion requirements and must not allow a child to attend school if:
- they have been informed that the child is infected with an infectious disease that requires exclusion as described in the School exclusion table
- they have been informed that a child has been in contact with a person with an infectious disease as described in the School exclusion table
- during an outbreak, DHHS directs children not immunised by a vaccine preventable disease to be excluded until advised attendance can be resumed.
Exclusion of a child with an infectious disease: secondary school students
Secondary schools are:
- required under the Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008 to comply with the directions of the Chief Health Officer or an authorised officer in the event of a public health risk such as an infectious disease outbreak
- not bound by the exclusion requirements, which apply to primary schools.
General responses to influenza, gastroenteritis and other common infections in your school
Schools should consider the following important points when responding to students affected by common infections:
- students with cold or flu-like symptoms or vomiting or diarrhoea should be encouraged to seek medical attention, limit contact with others and stay at home until symptoms have passed
- if a child becomes ill at school with these symptoms, schools should contact the family and arrange for the collection of the child
- good general hygiene remains the best defence against infection and schools should encourage children to regularly wash their hands and cover their nose and mouth if sneezing and coughing; see the Personal Hygiene policy
Cases of influenza at your school do not need to be reported to DHHS. However, if further advice is needed, see contact details in Notification of infectious diseases to DHHS (above).
Influenza Pandemic Response
An outline of key school actions against different stages of an influenza pandemic can be found in the Human Influenza Pandemic Incident Response Procedures (docx - 242.26kb)(Pandemic Influenza Incident Response Plan).
School community communication and additional advice
When contacting the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) regarding a notifiable infectious disease, advice will be provided to be communicated to the school community.
In other more general cases, the school should still give consideration as to what should be communicated to the school community. It should:
- maintain student confidentiality
- be fact based
- be written in a way not to cause alarm
- inform parents and guardians that a school community member/s has been diagnosed with an infectious disease
- name the condition
- suggest that they seek medical advice regarding their child’s health if they have concerns.
In those instances when a school may require additional advice, see contact details in Notification of infectious diseases to DHHS (above).
- Admission: for information on immunisation status certificates within the context of requirements for student enrolment
- Blood-Borne Viruses: for information on risk of blood-borne virus infection, privacy and discrimination
- First Aid: for information on first aid requirements and duty of care
- Head Lice: for information on processes to minimise outbreaks of head lice
- Immunisation: for information on the role of schools in relation to student immunisation
- Managing Open Wounds and Blood Spills: for information on first aid procedures related to blood spills and bleeding students
- Personal Hygiene: for information on support for personal hygiene, including hand hygiene, and school's responsibility for the provision of soap
- Syringe Disposals and Injuries: for information on sfe handling and disposal procedures and treatment of needle stick injuries
- Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008
- Public Health and Wellbeing Regulations 2009