Research

From Term 1 2017, Victorian government and Catholic schools will use the new Victorian Curriculum F-10. Curriculum related information is currently being reviewed and may be subject to change.

For more information on the curriculum, see:
The Victorian Curriculum F–10 - VCAA

A | B | CD | E | F | GH | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Locating the research

The Science Continuum F-10 is informed by a significant research base. Full text listings of academic publications tend to relocate frequently, so hyperlinks to the references have not been provided.

However, pasting the article title into a search engine may locate the full text on the web.

References: A to Z

A

Aikenhead, G (1987) ‘High School Graduates’ Beliefs about Science-Technology- Society III: Characteristics and Limitation of Scientific Knowledge’ Science Education, 71(4) pp 459-487.

Aikenhead, G S (2006) Science Education for Everyday Life: Evidence-Based Practice. Teachers College Press: New York.

Allen, P (1988) Who sank the boat? Penguin Books Ltd.

Arizona State University (2001) Student Preconceptions and Misconceptions about Chemistry, Arizona State University Press.

Ashbrook, P (2005) ‘More than messing around with magnets’ Science and Children, 43(2), pp 20-23.

B

Baker, J (2005) Belonging, Walker Books Australia.

Bell , B (1981) ‘When is an animal not an animal?Journal of Biological Education, 15 pp 213-218.

Bell, B (1993) Children’s Science, Constructivism and Learning in Science, Geelong, Deakin University Press.

Bell, B & Barker, M (1982) ‘Towards a scientific concept of ‘animal,’’ Journal of Biological Education, 16 pp 197-200.

Bell, B & Freyberg, P (1985) Language in the Science Classroom. In Osborne, R & Freyberg, P (Eds) Learning in Science, Auckland, NZ: Heinemann.

Benchmarks online (n.d.) Section 4 - The physical setting. AAAS Project 2061. Available http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/ch4/ch4.htm

Benseghir, A & Closset, J (1996) ‘The electrostatics-electrokinetics transition: Historical and educational difficulties’ International Journal of Science Education, 18 pp 179-191.

Berkheimer, G, Charles, A, Okhee, L & Theron, B (1988) Matter and Molecules Teacher's Guide, The Institute for Research on Teaching College of Education, Michigan State University.

Berthelsen, B (1999) ‘Students’ Naïve Conceptions in Life Science’ The Michigan Science Teachers Association Journal, 44 (1) pp 13-19.

Bezzi, A & Happs, J (1994) ‘Belief systems as barriers to learning in geological education’ Journal of Geological Education, 42 pp 134-140.

Biddulph, F & Osborne, R (1984) ‘Pupils' ideas about floating and sinking,’ Research in Science Education, 14 pp 114-124.

Birk , J & Lawson, A ( 1999) ‘The persistence of the candle and cylinder misconception’, Journal of Chemical Education, 76(7) pp 914-916.

Blake, A (2005) ‘Do young children’s ideas about the Earth’s structure and processes reveal underlying patterns of descriptive and causal understandings of Earth science?’ Research in Science and Technological Education, 23(1) pp 59-74.

Boyes, E & Stanisstreet, M (1991) ‘Development of pupils' ideas about seeing and hearing the path of light and sound’ Research in Science & Technological Education, 9(2) pp 223 – 244.

Brook, A, Briggs, H & Bell, B (1983) Secondary Students' Ideas about Particles, Children's Learning in Science Project (CLISP) Leeds University.

Brook, A & Driver, R (1984) Aspects of Secondary Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter, Children's Learning in Science Project, University of Leeds.

Brook, A, Briggs, H, Bell, B & Driver, R (1984) ‘Aspects of Secondary Students’ Understanding of Heat: A working paper of the Children’s Learning in Science Project’. The working papers of the in-depth phase. Hamilton, NZ: University of Waikato.

Brumby, M N (1984) ‘Misconceptions about the concept of natural selection by medical biology students’ Science Education, 68, pp 493-503.

Bryan, R, Laroder A, Tippins, D, Emaz, M & Fox, R (2008) ‘Simple Machines in the Community’ Science and Children, 45(7), pp 38-42.

Bucat, R (1983) Elements of Chemistry: Earth, Air, Fire and Water, Australian Academy of Science.

Bucat, R & Fensham, P (1995) Selected papers in Chemical Education Research: Implications for the teaching of Chemistry, Australian Science Education Research Association.

Bybee, R (2006) ‘Scientific inquiry and science teaching’ in L B Flick & N G Lederman (Eds) Scientific Inquiry and Nature of Science: Implications for Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education. Springer: Dordrecht.

C

Carey, S (1985) Conceptual Change in Childhood, Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.

Carr, M, Kirkwood, VM, Newman, B & Birdwhistel, R (1987) ‘Energy in three New Zealand secondary school junior science classrooms’ Research in Science Education, 17 pp 117-128.

Carr, M, Barker, M, Bell, B, Biddulph, F, Jones, A, Kirkwood, V, Pearson, J & Symington, D (1994) ‘The constructivist paradigm and some implications for science content and pedagogy.’ In P Fensham, R Gunstone, & R White, R (Eds) The Content of Science: A constructivist approach to its teaching and learning, London: Falmer.

Champagne, A, Klopfer, L & Anderson, J ( 1980) ‘Factors influencing the learning of classical mechanics’, American Journal of Physics, 48 pp 1074 -1079.

Chin, P, Mumby, H, Hutchinson, N, Taylor, J & Clark, F (2004) ‘Where’s the science? Understanding the form and function of workplace science’ In E Scanlon, P Murphy, J Thomas & E Whitelegg (Eds), Reconsidering Science Learning, London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Choi, O, Lee, Y & Kwon, J (2004) ‘A Study of students’ understanding of basic concepts in physics’. In Y Park (Ed) Teaching and learning of physics in cultural contexts, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.

Clement, J (1987) ‘Overcoming students' misconceptions in physics: The role of anchoring intuitions and analogical validity.’ In J Novak, (Ed) Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Misconceptions and Educational Strategies in Science and Mathematics, Ithaca , NY: Cornell University, 3 pp 84-96.

Coates D (1996) ‘Keeping children in the dark will help them see!’ Primary Science Review 42 pp 21-23.

Cohen, R, Eylon, B & Ganiel, U (1983) ‘Potential difference and current in simple electric circuits: A study of students’ concepts’, American Journal of Physics, 51, pp 407-412.

Contento, I (1981) Children's thinking about food and eating: A Piagetian-based study. Journal of Nutrition Education, 13 (1) pp 86-90.

Corrigan, D, Dillon, J, & Gunstone, R (2007) The Re-Emergence of Values in Science, Sense Publishers, Rotterdam.

D

Dal, B (2006) ‘The origin and extent of students’ understandings: The effect of various kinds of factors in conceptual understanding in volcanism’, Electronic Journal of Science Education, 11(1) pp 37-59.

De Vos, W & Verdonk, A (1987) 'A New Road to Reaction: Part 4, The substances and its molecules,' Journal of Chemical Education 64 pp 692-695.

Demastes, S S, Settlage, J & Good, R (1995) ‘Students' conceptions of natural selection and its role in evolution: Cases of replication and comparison’ Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32, pp 535-550.

Dotger, S (2008) ‘Using Simple Machines to Leverage Learning’ Science and Children, 45(7) pp 22-27.

Dove, J (1998) ‘Students’ alternate conceptions in Earth science: a review of research and the implications for teaching and learning’ Research Papers in Education, 13(2) pp 183-201.

Driver, R (1985) ‘Beyond appearances: The conservation of matter under physical and chemical transformations.’ In R Driver, E Guesne, & A Tiberghien (Eds) Children's Ideas in Science, Milton Keynes, UK : Open University Press, pp 145-169.

Driver, R, Squires, A, Rushworth, P & Wood-Robinson, V (1994) Making Sense of Secondary Science: Research into children's ideas, New York: Routledge.

Driver, R, Guesne, E & Tiberghien A (Eds) (1985) Children's Ideas in Science, Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

Driver, R & Millar, R (Eds) (1986) Energy matters. Leeds: Centre for Science and Mathematics Education, University of Leeds.

Duit, R & Haeussler, P (1994) ‘Learning and teaching energy’ In P Fensham, R Gunstone & R White (Eds) The content of science: A constructivist approach to its teaching and learning, London: The Falmer Press, pp 185-200.

Duit, R (1985) ‘The meaning of current and voltage in everyday language and its consequences for understanding the physical concepts of the electric circuit’ In R Duit, W Jung & C von Rhöeneck Aspects of understanding electricity, Kiel: Schmidt & Klaunig: pp 205-214.

Duit, R & von Rhöneck, C (1998) ‘Learning and understanding key concepts of electricity’ In A Tiberghien, E Jossem & J Barojas (Eds) Connecting research in physics education with teacher education. International Commission on Physics Education. Published electronically at http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~jossem/ICPE/TOC.html

E

Erikson, G (1994) ‘Pupils’ understanding of magnetism in practical assessment context: The relationship between content, process and progression’. In P Fensham, R Gunstone & R White (Eds) The Content of Science:A constructivist approach to its teaching and learning, London: The Falmer Press, pp 80-97.

Eshach H & Schwartz JL (2006) ‘Sound Stuff? Naive materialism in middle-school students' conceptions of sound’ International Journal of Science Education 28(7), pp 733 – 764.

F

Fensham, P (1994) ‘Beginning to teach Chemistry’. In P Fensham, R Gunstone,  & R White (Eds) The Contents of Science: A constructivist approach to its teaching and learning, Falmer Press, pp 14-28.

Ferrari, M & Chi, M T H (1998) ‘The nature of naive explanations of natural selection’ International Journal of Science Education, 20, pp 1231-1256.

Fleer, M & Hardy, T (1996) Science for children, Sydney: Prentice-Hall.

Fleer, M, Jane, B & Hardy, T (2007) Science for children, 3rd edition, Sydney: Prentice-Hall.

Fleming, R W (1987) ‘High School Graduates’ Beliefs' about Science-Technology-Society II: The Interaction Among Science, Technology and Society’ Science Education 71(2) pp 163-186.

Flick, L & Lederman, N (2006) Scientific Inquiry and Nature of Science: Implications for Teaching, Learning, and Teacher Education. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Ford, D (2003) ‘Sixth graders’ conceptions of rocks in their local environment’ Journal of Geosciences Education, 51 (4) pp 373-377.

Fullick, P & Ratcliffe, M (1996) Teaching Ethical Aspects of Science, The Bassett Press: Southampton, UK.

G

Gabel, D & Samuel, K (1987) ‘Understanding the particulate nature of matter’, Journal of Chemical Education, 64(8) pp 695-697.

Gabel, D (1993) ‘Use of the particle nature of matter in developing conceptual understanding’, Journal of Chemical Education, 70(3) pp 193-194.

Gellert, E (1962) ‘Children's conceptions of the content and functions of the human body’, Genetic Psychology Monographs, 65 pp 293-305.

Geraedts, C L. & Boersma, K T (2006) ‘Reinventing natural selection’ International Journal of Science Education, 28, pp 843-870.

Gilbert, J & Rutherford, M (1998) ‘Models in explanations, Part 1: Horses for courses?’ International Journal of Science Education, 20, pp 83-97.

Gilbert, J, Boulter, C & Rutherford, M (1998) ‘Models in explanations, Part 2: Whose voice? Whose ears?’ International Journal of Science Education, 20, pp 187-203.

Gilbert, J K & Boulter, C J (1998) ‘Learning science through models and modelling’ In B J Fraser, & K G Tobin (Eds) International handbook of Science Education, Part 1. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Press pp 53-66.

Gomez, C, and Pozo, J (2004) ‘Relationships between everyday knowledge and scientific knowledge: Understanding how matter changes’, International Journal of Science Education, 26 (11) pp 1325–1344.

Gott, Duggan, Roberts & Hussain (1995) Research into understanding scientific evidence available at http://www.dur.ac.uk/richard.gott/Evidence/cofev.htm (Retrieved 14 May, 2008).

Gott, R. Duggan, S & Roberts, R (2003) University of Durham. http://www.dur.ac.uk/richard.gott/Evidence/cofev.htm (Retrieved 14 May 2008).

Greene, E D (1990) ‘The logic of university students' misunderstanding of natural selection’ Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, pp 875-885.

Griffiths, A, Miller, J, Susuki, D, Lewontin R & Gelbart, W (1993) An introduction to Genetic Analysis Edition 5. New York: Freeman & Company.

Grosslight, L, Unger, C M, Jay, E & Smith, C L (1991) ‘Understanding models and their use in science: conceptions of middle and high school students and experts’ Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28, pp 799-822.

Guisasola, J (1995) ‘The meaningful learning of the fundamental concepts of electrostatics based on a constructivist model of teaching-learning by investigation’ in D Psillos (Ed), Proceedings of the Second Ph. D. Summer School. European Science Education Research Association.

Gunstone, R and Mitchell, I (1998) ‘Metacognition and conceptual change’. In J J Mintzes, J H Wandersee, and J Novak (Eds) Teaching Science for Understanding: A Human Constructivist View, San Diego: CA Academic Press, pp 133-163.

Gunstone, R and Watts, M (1985) ‘Force and motion’. In R Driver, E Guesne and A Tiberghien (Eds) Children's ideas in science, Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press, pp 85-104.

Gunstone, R, Mulhall, P & McKittrick, B (2009) Complexities in Teaching Mechanics and Electricity. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer (in preparation).

Gunstone, R, McKittrick, B & Mulhall, B (200x) ‘Considering complexities in teaching mechanics and electricity’. Publication pending.

H

Helman, H (1998) Great Feuds in ScienceTen of the liveliest disputes ever. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Hapkiewicz, A (1992) ‘Finding a List of Science Misconceptions’ The Michigan Science Teachers Association Journal 38 pp 11-14.

Happs, J (1980) Particles: A Working Paper of the Learning in Science project, Hamilton, NZ: University of Waikoto.

Happs, J (1982) Rocks and minerals: A Working Paper of the Learning in Science Project, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Harlen, W (1993) Teaching and Learning Primary Science, London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

Harlen W (2000) ‘There’s more to light than meets the eye!’ Primary Science Review 64, pp 20-22.

Harrington, R (1999) ‘Discovering the reasoning behind the words: An example from electrostatics’ American Journal of Physics 67 pp S58–S59.

Harrison, A & Treagust, D (2000) ‘A typology of school science models’ International Journal of Science Education, 22, pp 1011-1026.

Harrison , A & Treagust, D (2000) ‘Learning about atoms, molecules and chemical bonds: A case study of multiple model use in Grade 11 chemistry’, Science Education, 84 pp 352-381.

Harrison, A & Treagust, D (1996) ‘Secondary students' mental models of atoms and molecules: Implications for teaching Chemistry’, Science Education, 80(5) pp 509-534.

Hart, C, Mulhall, P, Berry, M, Loughran, J & Gunstone, R (2000) ‘What is the purpose of this prac? Or Can students learn something from doing experiments?’ Journal of Research in Science Teaching 37, pp 655-675.

Haslam, F & Gunstone, RF (1996) ‘Observation in science classes: students’ beliefs about its nature and purpose’ Paper given at the conference of the National Association for Research in Science teaching, St Louis.

Haupt, G (2006) ‘Concepts of magnetism held by elementary school children’ Science Education, 36(3), pp 162-168.

Hawley, D (2002) ‘Building understanding in young scientists’ Journal of Geoscience Education, 50 (4) pp 363-371

Helman, H (1998) Great Feuds in ScienceTen of the liveliest disputes ever. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Henriques, L (2000) ‘Children's misconceptions about weather: A review of the literature’. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of Research in Science Teaching, New Orleans, LA, April 29th 2000.

Hickey, R & Schibeci, R (1999), ‘The attraction of magnetism’ Physics Education, 34(8), pp 383-388.

Hodge, D (2000) Simple Machines, Kids Can Press, Ltd,Tonawanda, New York.

Howe, A, Davies, D, McMahon, K, Tower, L and Scott, T (2005) Science 5-11 a Guide for Teachers, Primary, David Fulton Publishers.

Hubber, P and Tytler, R ( 2004) Conceptual Change Models of Teaching and Learning: The art of teaching science, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

J

Jimenez-Aleixandre, M P (1992) ‘Thinking about theories or thinking with theories?: A classroom study with natural selection’ International Journal of Science Education, 14, pp 51-61.

Jimenez-Aleixandre, M P (1994) ‘Teaching evolution and natural selection: A look at textbooks and teachers’ Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31, pp 519-535.

Johnson, P (2002) ‘ Children's understanding of substances, Part 2: Explaining chemical change’, International Journal of Science Education, 24(10) pp 1037-1054.

Jones, B (1984) ‘How solid is a solid?’ Research in Science Education, 14 pp 104-113.

Jones, P (1998) Student Achievement in Natural and Processed Materials, Department of Education Western Australia.

K

Keil, F (1989) Concepts, Kinds, and Cognitive Development, Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.

Kerr, K, Beggs, J, Murphy, C (2006) ‘Comparing children’s and student teachers’ ideas about science concepts’, Irish Educational Studies, 25(3) pp 289-302.

Krnel, D, Watson, R, and Glazar, S (1998) ‘Survey of research related to the development of the concept of “matter”’, International Journal of Science Education, 20 pp 257-289.

Kusnick, J (2002) ‘Growing pebbles and conceptual prisms – understanding the source of student misconceptions about rock formation’. Journal for Geological Education, 50(1) pp 31-39.

Kyle, W, Desmond, L, Family, E, Shymansky, A (1989) ‘ Enhancing learning through conceptual change teaching’, Research Matters–to the Science Teacher, 8902, National Association for Research in Science Teaching.

L

Leach, J, Driver, R, Scott, P, Wood-Robinson, C (1992) Progression in Understanding of Ecological Concepts by Pupils Aged 5 to 16. Leeds, UK: The University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.

Leach, J, Driver, R, Scott, P, & Wood-Robinson, C (1995) ‘Children’s ideas about ecology, I: Theoretical background, design and methodology’, International Journal of Science Education, 17 pp 721-732.

Lederman, N (2006) ‘Syntax of nature of science within inquiry and science instruction’ In L B Flick & N G Lederman (Eds) Scientific Inquiry and Nature of Science: Implications for Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education. Springer: Dordrecht.

Lewis, J (1999). In Reiss, M (Ed) Teaching Secondary Biology, John Murray Ltd.

Lewis, J, Leach, J and Wood-Robinson, C (2000) ‘All in the genes? Young people’s understanding of the nature of genes’, Journal of Biological Education, 34(2) pp 74-79.

Lewis, J, Leach, J and Wood-Robinson, C (1999) Working Paper 4:Understanding the genetic basis of cells; B: the written probes, University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.

Licht, P (1991) ‘Teaching electrical energy, voltage and current: an alternative approach’. Physics Education 26(5) pp 272-277.

Liégeois, L & Mullet, E (2002) ‘High school students’ understanding of resistance in simple series circuits’ International Journal of Science Education, 24, pp 551-564.

Leite, L & Afonso, A (2001) ‘Portuguese school textbooks' illustrations and students' alternative conceptions on sound’ In R Pinto & S Surinach Physics Teacher Education Beyond 2000 Paris: Elsevier, pp 167-168.

Loughran J, Berry M, & Mulhall P (2004) Human Circulatory System: Attempting to Capture and Portray Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Faculty of Education, Monash University.

Loughran, J, Berry, A, Mulhall, P (2006) Understanding and developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers.

Loughran, J, Milroy, P, Berry, A, Gunstone, R, & Mulhall, P (2001) ‘Documenting science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through PaP-eRs’, Research in Science Education , 31 pp 289-307.

Loughran, J, Berry, A, & Mulhall, P (2006). Understanding and developing science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

M

Maichle, U (1981) ‘Representation of knowledge in basic electricity and its use for problem solving’ In W Jung, H Pfundt & C von Rhoeneck Proceedings of the international workshop on Problems Concerning Students' Representation of Physics and Chemistry Knowledge Ludwigsburg, Paedagogische Hochschule: pp 174-193.

Maloney, D O’Kuma T  Heieggelke C & Van Heuvelen A (2001) ‘Surveying students conceptual knowledge of Electricity and Magnetism’ American Journal of Physics, 69(7), pp 12-23.

Marques L & Thompson, D (1997) ‘Portuguese students’ understanding at ages 10-11 and 14-15 of the origin and nature of the Earth and the development of life’ Research in Science and Technological Education 15(1) pp 29-51.

McDermott, L (1997) ‘Students' conceptions in mechanics and problem solving in mechanics’, In A Tiberghien, E L Jossem & J Barojas (Eds) Connecting research in physics education with teacher education, International Commission on Physics Education.

McDermott, L & van Zee, E (1985) ‘Identifying and addressing student difficulties with electric circuits’. In R Duit, W Jung, & C von Rhöeneck, Aspects of understanding electricity. Kiel, Schmidt & Klaunig, pp 39-48.

McGuigan, L, Qualter, A & Schilling, M (1993) Children Science and Learning Investigation, 9(4) pp 23-25.

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Meyer, E (1995) ‘Simple Machines in Action’ Physics Teacher, 33(1) pp 28.

Millar, R & King, T (1993) ‘Students' understanding of voltage in simple series electric circuits’. International Journal of Science Education 15(3) pp 339-349.

Millar R & Whitworth G, (1994) How do we see? ‘Teaching children the scientific model of vision’ School Science Review 76 (274) pp 113-116.

Mintzes, J, Trowbridge, J, Arnaudin, M, and Wandersee, J (1991) ‘Children's biology: Studies on conceptual development in the life sciences’. In S Glynn, R Yeany, and B Britton (Eds) The Psychology of Learning Science, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Mitchell, I & Keast, S (2004) Catholic Education Office - Science Teaching and Learning Program, Monash University.

Mitchell, I (2007) - Awaiting publication.

Mitchell, I J (Ed) (2007) ‘Teaching for effective learning: The complete book of PEEL teaching procedures’ 3rd Edition, Melbourne: PEEL Publishing.

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N

National Center for Mathematics and Science, the Wisconsin Center for Education Research,  Natural Selectionhttp://ncisla.wceruw.org/muse/naturalselection/index.html(Retrieved 26-03-09)

Niaz, M (2000) ‘The Oil Drop Experiment: A rational reconstruction of the Millikan-Ehrenhaft controversy and its implications for chemistry textbooks’ Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(5) pp 480-508.

Nicoll, G (2001) 'A Report of undergraduates' bonding misconceptions', International Journal of Science Education 23(7) pp 707-730.

Norbury, J (2006) ‘Working with Simple Machines’ Physics Education, 41(6) pp 546-550.

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Nussbaum, J (1985) ‘The Particulate Nature of Matter in the gaseous phase’. In R Driver, E Guesne, and A Tiberhien  (Eds) Children's ideas in science, Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press, pp 124-144.

Nussbaum, J (1985) ‘The Earth as a cosmic body’. In R Driver, E Guesne & A Tiberghien (Eds) Children's ideas in science, Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press, pp 170-192.

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O

Osborne J (1993) ‘Young childrens’ (7-11) ideas about light and their development’ International Journal of Science Education 15(1), pp 83-93.

Osborne, R (1980) ‘Force: A working paper of the Learning in Science Project’. In R Osborne, P Freyberg & R Tasker (Eds) Learning in science project. Book 2. Looking at problems: The working papers of the in-depth phase. Hamilton, NZ: University of Waikato.

Osborne, R (1985) ‘Building on children's intuitive ideas’. In R Osborne and P Freyberg (Eds) Learning in Science, Auckland, NZ: Heinemann.

Osborne, R, & Freyberg, P (1985) Learning in science: The implications of children's science. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Osborne, R (1980). Electric current: A working paper of the Learning in Science Project. Hamilton, N.Z.: University of Waikato.

Osborne, R, & Freyberg, P,(1985). Learning in science: The implications of children's science. Auckland: Heinemann Education.

P

Palmer, D (2001) Students’ alternative conceptions and scientifically acceptable conceptions about gravity. International Journal of Science Education, 23(7) pp 691-706.

Palmer, D (1997) ‘The effect of context on students' reasoning about forces’, International Journal of Science Education, 19(6) pp 681-696.

Park, J, Kim, I, Kim, M & Lee, M (2001) ‘Analysis of students' processes of confirmation and falsification of their prior ideas about electrostatics’. International Journal of Science Education, 23 pp 1219-1236.

Parker, L (1992) ‘Language in Science Education: Implications for teachers’, Australian Science Teachers Journal, 38 pp 26-32.

Philips, W (1991) ‘Earth Science Misconceptions’ Science Teacher 58(2) pp 21-23.

R

Reiss, M (Ed) (1999) Teaching Secondary Biology, London: Association for Science Education, John Murray Publishers Ltd.

Reiss, M, & Tunnicliffe, S (2001) ‘Students’ understandings of human organs and organ systems’, Research in Science Education, 31 pp 383–399.

Reiner, M, Slotta, J, Chi, M & Resnick, L (2000) ‘Naïve physics reasoning: A commitment to substance-based conceptions’. Cognition and Instruction, 18 pp 1-34.

Russell, T, Harlen, W & Watt, D (1989) ‘Children’s ideas about evaporation’, International Journal of Science Education, 11 pp 566-576.

Russell, T, Longden, K & McGuigan, L (1991) SPACE Project materials. Distributed for Liverpool University Press - Primary SPACE Research Reports.

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S

Saari, H & Viiri, J (2001) ‘Teaching and learning the concept model in secondary schools’ In H.Behrendt, H.Dahncke, R.Duit, W.Graeber, M.Komorek & A.Kross (Eds) Research in Science Education - Past, Present, and Future. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Press pp 259-265.

Schibeci, R A, & Hickey, R (2000) ‘Is it natural or processed? Elementary school teachers and conceptions about materials’. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 37(10) pp 1154-1170.

Selley N (1996) ‘Children’s ideas on light and vision’ International Journal of Science Education 18(6) pp 713-723.

Seroglou, F, Koumaras, P & Tselfes, V (1998) ‘History of science and instructional design: The case of electromagnetism’. Science & Education, 7 pp 261-280.

Settlage, J (1994) ‘Conceptions of natural selection: A snapshot of the sense-making process’ Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31, pp 449-457.

Seymour, D (1970) ‘What Do You Mean, "Auditory Perception"?’ The Elementary School Journal, 70(4) pp 175-179.

Shar, L & Johnstone, L (2006) First Science Experiments: Mighty Machines, NewYork: Sterling Publishing Company.

Shipstone, D (1985). ‘Electricity in simple circuits’ In R Driver, E Guesne & A Tiberghien (Eds.), Children's ideas in science (pp. 291-316). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Shipstone, D & Gunstone, R (1985) ‘Teaching children to discriminate between current and energy’ In R Duit, W Jung & C von Rhoneck (Eds) Aspects of understanding electricity Keil, Germany: Schmidt & Klaunig, pp 187-198.

Shipstone, D & Gunstone, R (1985). ‘Teaching children to discriminate between current and energy’. In R Duit et al (Eds), Aspects of understanding electricity Kiel: IPN , pp 287-297.

Sneider, CI, & Ohadi, MM (1998) ‘Unravelling students’ misconceptions about the Earth’s shape and gravity’. Science Education, 82 pp 265-284.

Skamp, K (2004) ‘Our place in space’. In K Skamp (Ed) Teaching Primary Science Constructively, Southbank, Victoria: Thomson Learning Australia, pp 392-435.

Skamp, K (Ed) (2004) Teaching Primary Science Constructively Southbank, Victoria: Thomson Learning Australia.

Solomon, J (1983) ‘Learning about energy: How pupils think in two domains’ European Journal of Science Education, 5(1) pp 49-59.

Solomon, J (1992) Getting To Know About Energy In School And Society. London: The Falmer Press.

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Stavy, R (1990) ‘Children's conceptions of changes in the state of matter: From liquid (or solid) to gas’, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27 pp 247-266.

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