Statistics and Probability

In Mathematics, achievement standards describe the quality of learning (the extent of knowledge, the depth of understanding, and the sophistication of skills) that would indicate the student is well placed to commence the learning required at the next level of achievement.In their planning.

Schools and teachers refer to the content descriptions (Foundation – Level 10A) and to the expectations outlined in the achievement standards (Foundation – Level 10) of the Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry and Probability and Statistics strands of the Mathematics curriculum.

To view all information on AusVELS Mathematics go to the VCAA website.

Mathematics achievement standards Indicator of Progress including teaching strategies
Foundation Level

Students sort familiar categorical data into sets and use these to answer yes/no questions and make simple true/false statements about the data.

Level 1

Students describe data displays. They ask questions to collect and draw simple data displays. Students classify outcomes of simple familiar events.

Level 2

Students collect data from relevant questions to create lists, tables and picture graphs with and without the use of digital technology. They interpret data in context. Students describe outcomes of familiar events using everyday language.

Level 3

Students carry out simple data investigations for categorical variables. They interpret and compare data displays. Students conduct chance experiments, list possible outcomes and recognise variations in results.

Level 4

Students describe different methods for data collection and representation, and evaluate their effectiveness. They construct data displays from given or collected data, with and without the use of digital technology. Students list the probabilities of everyday events. They identify dependent and independent events.

Level 5

Students pose questions to gather data and construct various displays appropriate for the data, with and without the use of digital technology. They compare and interpret different data sets. Students list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities as a number from 0 to 1.


Level 6

Students interpret and compare a variety of data displays, including displays for two categorical variables. They analyse and evaluate data from secondary sources. Students compare observed and expected frequencies of events, including those where outcomes of trials are generated with the use of digital technology. They specify, list and communicate probabilities of events using simple ratios, fractions, decimals and percentages.

Level 7

Students identify issues involving the collection of discrete and continuous data from primary and secondary sources. They construct stem-and-leaf plots and dot-plots. Students identify or calculate mean, mode, median and range for data sets, using digital technology for larger data sets. They describe the relationship between the median and mean in data displays. Students determine the sample space for simple experiments with equally likely outcomes, and assign probabilities outcomes.

Level 8

Students explain issues related to the collection of sample data and discuss the effect of outliers on means and medians of the data. They use various approaches, including the use of digital technology, to generate simple random samples from a population. Students model situations with Venn diagrams and two-way tables and explain the use of 'not', 'and' and 'or'. Students choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They determine complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities.

Level 9

Students compare techniques for collecting data from primary and secondary sources, and identify questions and issues involving different data types. They construct histograms and back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots with and without the use of digital technology. Students identify mean and median in skewed, symmetric and bi-modal displays and use these to describe and interpret the distribution of the data. They calculate relative frequencies to estimate probabilities.
Students list outcomes for two-step experiments and assign probabilities for those outcomes and related events.

Level 10

Students compare univariate data sets by referring to summary statistics and the shape of their displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time and use scatter-plots generated by digital technology to investigate relationships between two continuous variables. Students evaluate the use of statistics in the media. They list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments involving independent and dependent events, and assign probabilities for these experiments.