Foundation level 
Students connect number names and numerals with sets of up to 20 elements, estimate the size of these sets, and use counting strategies to solve problems that involve comparing, combining and separating these sets. They match individual objects with counting sequences up to and back from 20. Students order the first 10 elements of a set. 

Level 1 
Students count to and from 100 and locate these numbers on a number line. They partition numbers using place value and carry out simple additions and subtractions, using counting strategies. Students recognise Australian coins according to their value. They identify representations of one half. Students describe number sequences resulting from skip counting by 2s, 5s and 10s. They continue simple patterns involving numbers and objects with and without the use of digital technology. 

Level 2 
Students count to and from, and order numbers up to 1000. They perform simple addition and subtraction calculations, using a range of strategies. They find the total value of simple collections of Australian notes and coins. Students represent multiplication and division by grouping into sets and divide collections and shapes into halves, quarters and eighths. They recognise increasing and decreasing number sequences involving 2s, 3s, 5s and 10s, identify the missing element in a number sequence, and use digital technology to produce sequences by constant addition. 

Level 3 
Students count and order numbers to and from 10 000. They recognise the connection between addition and subtraction, and solve problems using efficient strategies for multiplication with and without the use of digital technology. Students recall addition and multiplication facts for singledigit numbers. They represent money values in various ways and correctly count out change from financial transactions. Students model and represent unit fractions for halves, thirds, quarters, fifths and eighths, and multiples of these up to one. They classify numbers as either odd or even, continue number patterns involving addition or subtraction, and explore simple number sequences based on multiples. 

Level 4 
Students recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They choose appropriate strategies for calculations involving multiplication and division, with and without the use of digital technology, and estimate answers accurately enough for the context. Students solve simple purchasing problems with and without the use of digital technology. They locate familiar fractions on a number line, recognise common equivalent fractions in familiar contexts and make connections between fractions and decimal notations up to two decimal places. Students identify unknown quantities in number sentences. They use the properties of odd and even numbers and describe number patterns resulting from multiplication. Students continue number sequences involving multiples of singledigit numbers and unit fractions, and locate them on a number line. 

Level 5 
Students solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies including digital technology. They estimate to check the reasonableness of answers and approximate answers by rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They explain plans for simple budgets. Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on a number line. Students add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. They find unknown quantities in number sentences and continue patterns by adding or subtracting fractions and decimals. 

Level 6 

Students recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and determine sets of these numbers. They solve problems that involve all four operations with whole numbers and describe the use of integers in everyday contexts. Students locate fractions and integers on a number line and connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same number. They solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of related fractions. Students calculate a simple fraction of a quantity and calculate common percentage discounts on sale items, with and without the use of digital technology. They make connections between the powers of 10 and the multiplication and division of decimals. Students add, subtract and multiply decimals and divide decimals where the result is rational. Students write number sentences using brackets and order of operations, and specify rules used to generate sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals. They use ordered pairs of integers to represent coordinates of points and locate a point in any one of the four quadrants on the Cartesian plane. 

Level 7 

Students solve problems involving the order, addition and subtraction of integers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. They solve problems involving all four operations with fractions, decimals, percentages and their equivalences, and express fractions in their simplest form. Students compare the cost of items to make financial decisions, with and without the use of digital technology. They make simple estimates to judge the reasonableness of results. Students use variables to represent arbitrary numbers, connect the laws and properties of number to algebra and substitute numbers into algebraic expressions. They assign ordered pairs to given points on the Cartesian plane and interpret and analyse graphs of relations from real data. Students develop simple linear models for situations, make predictions based on these models, solve related equations and check their solutions. 

Level 8 

Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane. 

Level 9 

Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and nonlinear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without the use of digital technology. 

Level 10 

Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students find unknown values after substitution into formulas, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple nonmonic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems. 
