Secondary Years 7-10

From Term 1 2017, Victorian government and Catholic schools will use the new Victorian Curriculum F-10. Curriculum related information is currently being reviewed and may be subject to change.

For more information on the curriculum, see:
The Victorian Curriculum F–10 - VCAA

Secondary EAL learners are assessed against the SL, S1, S2, S3 and S4 stages of the EAL Developmental Continuum. This page highlights the critical understandings required by EAL learners in order  to progress through the progression points along the Developmental Continuum to the standards for Stages SL, S1, S2, S3 and S4.

This page contains progression profiles of student learners at the S Stages in the three modes of Speaking and Listening, Reading and Viewing and Writing.  

Where available, work samples are provided for the modes at various progression points within Stages SL, S1, S2, S3 and S4. The work samples demonstrate the supportive approaches teachers use in the teaching of EAL learners. In these work samples EAL learners demonstrate their language proficiency through the activities they undertake with the teacher or their peers. The work samples are provided to assist mainstream teachers and EAL specialists to plan EAL appropriate activities, implement EAL approaches and strategies in class activities, and assist teachers to make accurate judgements about English language development. The work samples can also be used by schools as a professional learning resource to support teams of teachers to assess and moderate EAL student work. 

Navigate to a Secondary Stage within a mode on this page.

Speaking and ListeningReading and ViewingWriting

SL beginning

SL beginning

SL beginning

SL progressing towards

SL progressing towards

SL progressing towards

SL Standard

SL Standard

SL Standard

S1 beginning

S1 beginning

S1 beginning

S1 progressing towards

S1 progressing towards

S1 progressing towards

S1 Standard

S1 Standard

S1 Standard

S2 beginning

S2 beginning

S2 beginning

S2 progressing towards

S2 progressing towards

S2 progressing towards

S2 Standard

S2 Standard

S2 Standard

S3 beginning

S3 beginning

S3 beginning

S3 progressing towards

S3 progressing towards

S3 progressing towards

S3 Standard

S3 Standard

S3 Standard

S4 beginning

S4 beginning

S4 beginning

S4 progressing towards

S4 progressing towards

S4 progressing towards

S4 Standard

S4 Standard

S4 Standard

Speaking and Listening

Indicators of progress in the Speaking and Listening dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • 'Texts and responses to texts' focuses on producing and responding to oral English texts used for social interaction and in the school context across the curriculum.
  • 'Cultural conventions of language use' focuses on understanding and using spoken English in a variety of contexts and identifying how different contexts affect the way spoken English is used and interpreted.
  • 'Linguistic structures and features' focuses on control over the structures and features of spoken English.
  • 'Maintaining and negotiating communication' focuses on the strategies students at this stage typically use to speak in and learn English.
StageStandards and progression profilesIndicators of progress

SL beginning

(SL.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at SL have very little or no oral English. They do not respond meaningfully to English. They will join in activities, watching and copying what other students do in the classroom but may not speak. They may spontaneously repeat words or phrases without understanding their meaning. They will probably not speak in the classroom except to same language peers.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage SL beginning

 

SL progressing towards

(SL.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at SL are settling into situations where English is the dominant language. They begin to understand that communication with teachers and peers needs to be conducted in English rather than a reliance on their own language. They begin to learn the basic oral English required to manage learning in an English-speaking classroom, primarily through words or formulaic expressions, rather than grammatically complete patterns. They have begun beginning to understand that different forms of language are used in different situations and contexts, including an awareness of changes to word stress, intonation and rhythm. They have also begun to recognise the importance of non-verbal communication.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage SL progressing towards

 

SL Standard

(SL.3)

At Stage SL, students communicate simply but effectively in English in a limited range of familiar social and classroom contexts. They communicate using formulaic language, short, simple and well-rehearsed grammatical features and adaptations of their limited English repertoire. They use stress and intonation appropriately in some familiar interactions and can imitate models with some accuracy. They understand common instructions and questions, and simple descriptions and explanations when strongly supported in familiar contexts. They understand and use basic subject–verb–object grammatical patterns, common regular and irregular verbs, and basic prepositions and connectives. They use their limited repertoire with varying accuracy to ask and respond to questions in predictable and familiar contexts, express simple ideas and preferences and provide simple explanations and descriptions. They use some basic strategies to initiate and sustain simple conversations in English, repeating and re-pronouncing as necessary.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage SL Standard

 

Speaking and Listening – Stage SL

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S1 beginning

(S1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S1 can communicate using formulaic language and simple, well-rehearsed grammatical features of their limited English repertoire. They recognise the use of stress and intonation within language according to context and situation, and have begun to use it in some familiar interactions and to imitate models with some accuracy. They understand common instructions and questions, and simple descriptions and explanations when strongly supported in familiar contexts, but cannot necessarily respond in English. They understand the basic subject–verb–object grammatical pattern, common regular and irregular verbs, and basic prepositions and connectives related to most routine social and school needs, but cannot use them accurately. They use some very basic strategies to initiate and sustain simple conversations in English, such as a smile or nod, and can repeat and re-pronounce as necessary.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S1 beginning

 

S1 progressing towards

(S1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S1 are still dependent on slow careful speech and face-to-face contact, but have begun to identify essential information from short simple texts relevant to their personal experience or familiar topics with teacher support. They demonstrate an ability to recognise the situational and contextual use of word stress, rhythm, and intonation by attempting to adjust their own responses accordingly.  They have begun to take their own initiative to initiate interaction with others (e.g. ask for a library book or give simple instructions), and respond confidently when encountering familiar, formulaic and routine questions. They observe others and are attempting to add to their own repertoire of listening and speaking behaviours, including the giving of and responding to non-verbal cues. There are still frequent examples of a transfer of knowledge of the structure of spoken texts and discourse patterns from their first language to English.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S1 progressing towards

 

S1 Standard

(S1.3)

At Stage S1, students communicate simply but effectively in English in a limited range of familiar social and classroom contexts, and when learning in contexts across the curriculum. They negotiate meaning and interact with others using formulaic language, short simple and well-rehearsed grammatical features and creative adaptations of their limited English repertoire. They use some stress and intonation appropriately in familiar interactions. They use subject–verb–object utterances, basic prepositions and some common regular and irregular verbs. They understand and use introduced vocabulary, common basic grammatical patterns and connectives. They use these with varying grammatical accuracy to express ideas and preferences, and provide simple explanations and descriptions. They understand common instructions and questions and simple descriptions or explanations in familiar contexts and areas related to their prior knowledge and experience. They use some basic strategies to initiate and sustain conversations, repeating or re-pronouncing as necessary.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S1 Standard

 

Speaking and Listening – Stage S1

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S2 beginning

(S2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S2 can respond to a short sequence of instructions and questions related to classroom activities and immediate social and familiar topics with scaffolding. Although they may still make mistakes, students will have gained the confidence to initiate giving information or assistance, and attempt to use the language creatively beyond set formulaic expressions for well-rehearsed tasks, such as describing ideas or objects, or giving an impromptu talk or story on a familiar topic. Although they might not yet be able to use it effectively, they demonstrate an awareness that language changes between social and formal contexts, including academic registers in the classroom and across the curriculum.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S2 beginning

 

S2 progressing towards

(S2.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S2 attempt to use their growing repertoire of language in classroom situations to express ideas in relation to subject matter, verbalise the thinking processes related to abstract ideas and problem solving, and contribute to, and interact with, groups to arrive at a joint conclusion. They can generally cope with oral discourse that includes increasing amounts of colloquial language, although a lack of awareness of cultural references might still seriously impede meaning in many cases. They have begun to develop a language for talking about language, including cultural differences related to communication, and appropriateness of forms of politeness according to context. They have begun attempts to vary the modality of utterances appropriate to context (e.g. would/could/can), and a diversified range of vocabulary to convey the same idea (e.g. pretty, nice, beautiful).

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S2 progressing towards

 

S2 Standard

(S2.3)

At Stage S2, students use simple but effective strategies for initiating communication and negotiating meaning. They communicate effectively in a range of familiar social and some basic academic contexts, experimenting with and adapting their developing English and awareness of Australian cultural expectations appropriately. With support in academic contexts, they extract some specific information from accessible audio-visual texts and understand the gist of teacher explanations involving familiar subject specific vocabulary. With support, they use some increasingly complex grammatical features and a basic range of connectives to show relationships between ideas. They use some standard expressions to express views and attitudes. They demonstrate some understanding of the structure and features of extended texts, by using appropriate stress, intonation and pausing, eye contact, and modelled introductory and concluding sentences.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S2 Standard

 

Speaking and Listening – Stage S2

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S3 beginning

(S3.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S3 have begun to show confidence in using language and listening to texts that fall outside of familiar situations, including in subject areas across the curriculum. Their spoken texts begin to show a clear structure, but they might not yet include all the necessary words and connectives that make it smooth and coherent.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S3.1 beginning

 

S3 progressing towards

(S3.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S3 have begun to use a range of connectives to produce a single coherent text, including time signals to link ideas and events. They are gaining increasing awareness and control over the subtleties of intonation, stress, and rhythm when using language to gain the audience/listeners’ attention, although they might still have trouble using this effectively themselves. They have begun to experiment with techniques when presenting small talks to a classroom audience, including formal and non-verbal language, audio-visual resources, sequencing words, and inviting/responding to questions.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S3 progressing towards

 

S3 Standard

(S3.3)

At Stage S3, students listen, question and respond successfully in a wide range of social and academic contexts. They demonstrate sufficient control of stress, rhythm and intonation to be understood in most contexts. They use appropriate non-verbal language, take account of purpose and audience, and stage extended texts appropriately when participating in group debates and discussions. They discuss aspects of issues and texts from across the curriculum using modelled examples in supportive classroom situations and structured group work. With varying accuracy, they use a range of question types, time signals, connectives, conjunctions and modals to express a variety of academic functions, and to give and justify opinions and points of view. Students interpret the gist of accessible spoken and audio-visual texts, and, with support, understand the full text. They listen for specific information when questions are given beforehand. They understand the gist of small amounts of abstract and generalised information when appropriate background is provided.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S3 Standard

 

Speaking and Listening – Stage S3

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S4 beginning

(S4.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S4 show confidence in attempting a wide range of mainstream spoken texts across the curriculum, although they are not yet capable of fully comprehending the meaning of those texts without some scaffolding. They are willing to present their own point of view or perspective on topics in areas that are not directly related to their own personal experience, but will make errors even though the intended meaning will generally be clear.

 

S4 progressing towards

(S4.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S4 have begun to take their own initiative to negotiate with peers and teachers to organize their own work plans, although this is still done in close consultation with the teacher. They experiment with differences between formal and informal register according to the audience and purpose, variations in intonation, rhythm, and stress, and the use of language to convey different shades of meaning when giving talks to convey opinions and emotions, rather than a focus only on the content to be delivered. They are using language to talk about language in ways that enable them to rectify their own problems and weaknesses (e.g. ‘How do I say Jones’ when there’s no apostrophes?’).

 

S4 Standard

(S4.3)

At Stage S4, students demonstrate greater autonomy and control over their use of English, combining their expanding vocabulary with the appropriate use of complex grammatical features including modals, conditionals, passive voice and a wide range of tenses and connectives. They demonstrate understanding of the qualities that affect fluency in English including pausing, stress, rhythm and intonation. They speak clearly and pronounce most sounds correctly. They take part in extended discourse on factual and interpersonal topics using an appropriate modelled structure, and respond appropriately to listeners’ reactions. They identify the intention of supportive speakers, using their knowledge of how intonation, volume, stress and lexical choices support and convey meaning and emphasise opinions and emotions. They identify examples of relatively overt subjective language. They extract information from challenging spoken texts, using guide questions, completing tables and taking notes on key ideas.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S4 standard

 

Speaking and listening – Stage S4

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

Reading and viewing

Indicators of progress in the Reading and viewing dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on reading and responding to written English texts used for social and academic purposes.
  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on understanding written English texts which are used in a variety of contexts and identifying how different contexts affect the way written English is used and interpreted.
  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of written English.
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies employed to read and respond to written English.
StageStandards and progression profilesIndicators of progress

SL beginning

(S0.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at SL have begun to understand that printed text shares a relationship with oral discourse, and is used to convey meaning and communicate in a consistent way.  They participate in shared reading activities, although they are not able to comprehend much of the text or read back. They have begun to recognize very familiar words in print, such as their name and surrounding text in the immediate environment. They have also begun to recognize the basic conventions of book/print layout (e.g. that illustrations can relate to text; books have titles; they can find front/end of the book, etc).

 

SL progressing towards

(S0.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at SL have begun to read with a teacher and often track text with their finger. They will rely on sub-vocalisation (i.e. sounding out the text) when trying to read by themselves.  They have begun to recognize and memorise the name and sounds of letters of the alphabet in both upper and lower case forms. They have also become aware of punctuation, but do not usually modify their reading aloud using the appropriate pauses, emphasis, and intonation at this stage. They have started using and recognizing written text in other forms, such as on the internet and computer screen.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage SL progressing towards - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

SL Standard

(S0.3)

At Stage SL, students read and complete simple, structured activities around a wide range of familiar, short, simple, texts which use repetitive structures and features and are strongly supported by illustrations. They read their own writing and simple teacher-developed texts based on well-rehearsed spoken English. They read a range of familiar simple fictional, factual and everyday texts. They name some letters and know the sounds many letters and common letter combinations usually make. They attempt to sound out words, recognise some common words, and read some new words based on their similarity to known words. They show some awareness of basic punctuation and use stress, intonation or pausing appropriately when reading aloud well known texts. They use simple strategies like pointing to words as they read or as shared texts are read aloud in class. They understand the basic practical and cultural purposes of the texts they read.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage SL standard  - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Reading and viewing – Stage SL

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S1 beginning

(S1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S1 can recognize the basic conventions of written texts in English, such as start and end of books, titles, paragraphing, etc. They participate in shared reading activities by attending to the main reader, and may use their finger to track text as they listen. They attempt to draw on support from other resources to help them with the written text, such as sounding out words or using a bilingual dictionary. They are confident at attempting text that appears on computer screens and are able to recognize the letters on a keyboard. 

 

S1 progressing towards

(S1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S1 have begun to get the basic gist of short texts on familiar topics, although they have difficulty discussing what texts mean beyond the basic literal level. They have begun to use the conventions of texts, such as titles, illustrations, and sub-headings, to help them gain meaning. Although they might still make mistakes, they are aware of punctuation and attempt to modify their reading aloud accordingly although they may require reminders and guidance.

 

S1 Standard

(S1.3)

At Stage S1, students read and comprehend a range of short, simple, familiar factual or fictional EAL or teacher-developed texts. They understand a range of basic written instructions and questions in context. They discuss texts at a simple literal level, and show some understanding beyond the literal level. They demonstrate an understanding of basic text structure, reading for different purposes, and using titles and chapter headings to make simple predictions about texts. Students read new texts with support, combining their developing knowledge of English sound–letter relationships, their developing sight and oral vocabulary, their beginning knowledge of the conventions of print and text organisation in English, and their emerging knowledge of English grammar. They read some common letter combinations and make logical attempts at reading new words. They use appropriate stress, intonation and phrasing when reading aloud known texts, showing an understanding of the function of basic punctuation.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S1 standard  - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Reading and viewing – Stage S1

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S2 beginning

(S2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S2 have begun to develop the confidence to attempt a wider range of different texts on unfamiliar topics, such as newspaper articles, but will still require the close support of the teacher.  They have begun to recognize that written text can also express emotions. They also have a basic awareness that different types of texts are used for different purposes, such as fictional texts and non-fictional texts, and creative writing styles (e.g. poems), lists, etc.

 

S2 progressing towards

(S2.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S2 have begun to use strategies and resources other than the teacher to read more difficult texts, such as self-correction, peers, and ICT resources (e.g. web sites, CD-ROM). They can retell simple, familiar texts in their own words that require an understanding of textual coherence. They will also attempt to give their own personal impression of a text. They demonstrate an ability to draw on their own background knowledge and other cultural or contextual information to construct meaning from text, rather than relying on the literal meaning alone.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S2 progressing towards - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

S2 Standard

(S2.3)

At Stage S2, students read and comprehend a range of short, familiar fictional and factual EAL texts and, when well-supported, some unfamiliar texts. They show some comprehension beyond the literal level, suggesting appropriate interpretations and identifying basic cultural variables where evident. They use headings, sub-headings and diagrams to assist in reading accessible texts from across the curriculum for a range of purposes. They extract some simple specific information and the main ideas from factual texts. They show awareness of how some connectives link and sequence ideas within a text. They read-on and consider the context when deducing the meaning of unknown words. They read aloud with a degree of fluency, and draw upon their understanding of the text to use stress and intonation with increasing accuracy. They use their developing knowledge of sentence structure and sound–letter relationships to read new words and self-correct. They select basic texts appropriate for particular reading purposes.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S2 standard - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Reading and viewing – Stage S2

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S3 beginning

(S3.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S3 have an awareness of textual meaning beyond the literal reading of the text, although they will still be developing ways of forming their own responses to the higher order meaning of texts. They have confidence in attempting a range of different texts across the curriculum, but will require considerable scaffolding and teacher guidance for unfamiliar academic texts. They have begun to use a range of reading strategies such as scanning and skimming rather than reliance upon prediction to infer the general meaning from text, but may still be inefficient at using these techniques as readers.

 

S3 progressing towards

(S3.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S3 have begun to develop a sound understanding of the distinction between different text types for different purposes, as well as developing a metalanguage to talk about those differences.  They have also begun to develop skills not just to talk about the content of a text, but also to discuss how it is written in terms of the writer (e.g. stance and style) and audience. They can also recognize and discuss cultural features of text, such as humour, voice, and imagery, with the teacher’s assistance.

 

S3 Standard

(S3.3)

At Stage S3, students demonstrate, through guided activities, a basic understanding of the main ideas, issues or plot developments in a range of accessible texts from across the curriculum. They demonstrate a basic understanding of the different purposes and structures of a range of text-types and can make predictions about the likely content of texts. They identify the stages of accessible narrative texts, and the role of headings, sub-headings, diagrams and captions in factual texts. They follow meaning across sentences and paragraphs by tracking basic cohesive and reference items and clearly expressed syntactic and semantic cues. They use appropriate metalanguage to talk about the structure and features of a text. They adjust their rate of reading according to the task, reading closely for analysis, scanning for specific information and skimming for gist. They use cues from the surrounding text and their sound–letter knowledge to assist in reading new words.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S3 standard - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Reading and viewing – Stage S3

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S4 beginning

(S4.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S4 have the confidence to attempt a range of technical and general texts which are not too culturally laden, from a range of media. They are able to comprehend even quite lengthy texts on unfamiliar topics, but will need extra time to do so. They will not usually need to use a dictionary to understand the gist of such pieces, but will need help to extract more precise meanings. They are able to offer a personal response to a text that takes into account the meaning of the text beyond a literal understanding, but may not necessarily have understood subtle shades of meaning with complete accuracy. They have begun to use a variety of strategies for extracting and organizing information from printed sources in a variety of media.

 

S4 progressing towards

(S4.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S4 can read a wide range of accessible and culturally appropriate texts across the curriculum and from a range of media, but sometimes have to use self-help strategies to assist them with finer points of meaning (e.g. searching for further references, consulting English dictionaries, asking peers for clarification, etc.). They use strategies that they find personally effective for extracting, organizing, and manipulating information from printed sources for their own purposes, such as writing or presentations. Their analyses of texts show a developing awareness of how culture influences the ways in which texts are produced and interpreted, and in their own responses to texts they attempt to address subtleties such as humour, imagery, and idioms.

 

S4 Standard

(S4.3)

At Stage S4, students read a wide range of accessible and culturally appropriate texts from across the curriculum and from a range of media with a high degree of independence. They take notes that identify main ideas, issues and plot developments. They identify supporting information to justify a response, including significant quotations that relate to key themes. They identify bias through emotive and persuasive language. They understand the gist by focusing on sub-headings and the first lines of key paragraphs. They adjust their reading style according to the task. They locate and organise information from a range of reference sources including the Internet. They identify reference items across complex sentences. Using their knowledge of different text types and their purposes, they predict the way a text may be organised and its likely language features. With more difficult texts, they identify a few specific facts and the basic perspective of the writer.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S4 standard  - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Reading and viewing – Stage S4

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

Writing

Indicators of progress in the Writing dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on communicating in written English for social and academic purposes.
  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on producing written English texts which are used in a variety of contexts and understanding the relationship between text and context, audience and purpose.
  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of written English.
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies employed to produce written English.
StageStandards and progression profilesIndicators of progress

SL beginning

(S0.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at SL experiment with a range of drawing and writing implements, such as pens, pencils, crayons, and rulers, but not for communicative purposes. They might, however, use drawings in an attempt to convey meaning or a story. With assistance, they can copy and trace letters and numbers, demonstrate an awareness of writing and layout conventions of text (e.g. left to right, spaces between words, and the position of a heading or title), and form and place letters on line.  They have begun to experiment with the computer as a writing tool, such as recognizing letters on the keyboard.

 

SL progressing towards

(S0.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at SL have begun to expect that writing is part of school learning. They have begun to write letters and numbers independently, and have begun to experiment with punctuation, including upper and lower case. With prompting, they can check the accuracy of their own writing against the original. With assistance, they have begun to use very basic strategies to support their own writing, such as sounding out words phonetically, using a simple dictionary or word list, or using ‘look, say, cover, write, check’ to learn new words.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage SL progressing towards - scroll down for writing samples

 

SL Standard

(S0.3)

At Stage SL, in a limited range of familiar contexts, students write short, grammatically-simple texts based on well-rehearsed spoken and well-practised written English. They write simply for a range of basic classroom and personal purposes such as making lists, writing simple journal entries and notes, and complete activities following models. They demonstrate an early awareness that written texts in English are presented according to certain conventions which change according to context and purpose. Their texts use familiar sentence patterns from well known texts or classroom models. They begin to use conventional letter formations when writing or copying, attending to the relative sizes and shapes of letters, their position on the line, and basic punctuation. They leave appropriate spaces between words. They attempt to write some new words using their limited knowledge of the sound-letter system of English, personal dictionaries and glossaries, resources in the classroom, and by asking for assistance.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage SL standard - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Writing – Stage SL

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S1 beginning

(S1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S1 attempt to write down words they have heard or said, but this will usually not be with accurate spelling.  They will rely heavily on proformas and other model texts as scaffolding to produce extended pieces of writing longer than a phrase or sentence with teacher guidance, but are not yet aware that different text types are used for different purposes. They tend to focus on producing a final product, rather than recognizing that the act of writing is a process that involves planning, revision, and editing.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S1 begin - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

S1 progressing towards

(S1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S1 have begun to attempt their own sentences, although the focus is on meaning rather than grammatical accuracy. Most sentences tend to follow a basic subject-verb-object pattern, but with varying degrees of accuracy. Their texts demonstrate a growing awareness of differences between text types, especially in terms of overall organisational features and structure, although their ability to demonstrate this in their own writing is still very rudimentary.  With assistance, they can review their writing and identify aspects that might be changed or revised.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S1 progressing towards - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

S1 Standard

(S1.3)

At Stage S1, students write for a range of basic classroom and personal purposes, making lists, writing simple journal entries, notes, descriptions, recounts of events, and instructional texts. Their basic sentences and short texts are based on well-practised spoken English and familiar contexts. They write with varying grammatical accuracy, expressing themselves using familiar vocabulary and modelled structures and features. They order and sequence sentences about familiar topics into coherent texts, incorporating basic headings, sub-headings and paragraphs. They correct some errors relating to targeted grammatical items, and rework drafts in response to teacher suggestions. With support they plan their texts and provide some additional information through illustrations and diagrams. They utilise a range of strategies for finding and spelling words, using spelling patterns, and checking resources. They use basic word processing features to write and present their texts.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S1 standard - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Writing – Stage S1

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S2 beginning

(S2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S2 demonstrate a range of strategies that help them to become independent writers, such as accessing new words from dictionaries or word lists, and spelling words out phonetically or using other spelling strategies (e.g. mnemonics). Although not necessarily used accurately, their texts begin to include a greater and more creative range of adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and variations in tenses. They are also beginning to be more confident at using a wider range of text types (e.g. procedure, report, etc), although they will often rely on assistance and models.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S2 beginning - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

S2 progressing towards

(S2.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S2 have begun to use models of text types with a relative degree of independence to produce their own work. With assistance, they can organise the content of a topic at paragraph and topic sentence level, and the overall coherence and structure of texts is becoming more pronounced given their expanding repertoire of connectives, conjunctives, and grammatical structures.  They attempt to use direct speech in their texts where appropriate, although it may not be punctuated accurately. They show an awareness of the writing process, including the need to draft, review, and revise, but still require teacher guidance to work through each of these stages productively. 

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S2 progressing towards - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

S2 Standard

(S2.3)

At Stage S2, students write with a degree of autonomy for a range of everyday classroom and personal purposes, such as describing, explaining and recounting. They independently write some basic texts and experiment with presenting their own ideas. Their texts show varying grammatical accuracy. They incorporate subject-specific vocabulary and use taught grammatical features to achieve desired effects. They use an increasing range of simple connectives to indicate some basic causal, conditional and temporal relationships within and between sentences and paragraphs. They choose appropriate text structures and use headings, sub-headings, tables and illustrations. They use basic text models as a basis for their own texts. They use strategies to organise information in supported research tasks. With teacher support and feedback, they review, re-draft and improve their writing by discussing alternative ways of arranging and expressing ideas.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S2 standard - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Writing – Stage S2

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S3 beginning

(S3.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S3 can generally attempt a wide range of different text types appropriate to purpose and audience as independent writers, but will often require extensive opportunities for revision to increase accuracy based on teacher feedback. They almost always use general punctuation conventions correctly (e.g. upper and lower case, full stops, commas, question marks, etc), and have begun to experiment with more complex marks (e.g. double exclamation, dash, ellipse, semicolon, colon, etc).  They show a growing awareness of social and cultural sensibilities in word choice (e.g. plump/fat, man/people, etc), but may still miss many more subtle nuances.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S3 beginning

 

S3 progressing towards

(S3.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S3 show attempts at creating mood and feeling in their written texts, as well as the use of some colloquial or idiomatic language and humour, although this might often not be used accurately. They have become comfortable at producing their text in print or on the computer.  Their engagement with the writing process shows an increasing level of complexity, such as the use of various strategies to plan and organise texts (e.g. graphic organizers or timelines to draft outlines), and an ability to take responsibility proofreading and revising their texts independently without having to be initiated under teacher guidance.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S3 progressing towards  - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

S3 Standard

(S3.3)

At Stage S3, through guided activities, students write an extensive range of fictional and factual text types from across the curriculum, showing an awareness of purpose and audience. They consistently use the basic structures of these text types, and demonstrate consistent but not complete control of the English grammar appropriate to them. They demonstrate some control of passive voice, a range of tenses, conditionals and direct speech. They produce paragraphs with topic sentences and incorporate some cohesive devices to make links and contrasts between and within paragraphs through a range of modals and pronoun references. When taking notes they use appropriate abbreviations. When planning, writing, reviewing and redrafting they pay some attention to whole-text, sentence and word level issues, including punctuation. They use a range of strategies when spelling new words. They present their writing appropriately, in print and electronic forms.

 

Writing – Stage S3

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

S4 beginning

(S4.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at S4 have begun to experiment with variations on the basic generic text types, although early drafts require extensive opportunities for revision. Basic grammatical structures and features are almost always correct, but attempts at more difficult structures may impede meaning. They incorporate a range of different devices, such as charts, diagrams, and other illustrations, to support the meaning being conveyed in the body of the written text. They attempt to use idioms, euphemisms, metaphors and other imagery beyond the literal meaning of the text to convey meaning, but this is not always done effectively.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S4 beginning

 

S4 progressing towards

(S4.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at S4 are attempting to produce a range of text types. While their texts, in both written and multimedia forms, may have weaknesses which require improvement, students have a metalanguage for talking about texts that enables them to discuss how the texts might be revised.  Attempts to revise texts move beyond a focus on correcting surface level inaccuracies to a more substantive degree of revision which aims to improve the overall communicative intent of the text.

 

S4 Standard

(S4.3)

At Stage S4, students write, with appropriate support, the full range of extended fictional and factual text types undertaken across the curriculum. With support they vary their writing consistent with the text type, the context and the needs of the reader, presenting similar content in different ways. They demonstrate reasonably consistent control of a wide range of grammatical features. They incorporate direct and indirect speech, including quotations, appropriately. When taking notes they use appropriate abbreviations, symbols and graphic devices. They employ an extended range of appropriate cohesive devices between sentences and paragraphs, retaining clarity and fluency. They use some abstract noun groups. In response to feedback and self-assessment, they review and redraft their writing to enhance fluency, clarity, accuracy and appropriateness to purpose, audience and context. They plan and present their writing for a range of print and multimedia forms, as appropriate.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage S4 standard - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Writing – Stage S4

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication