Middle/Upper Primary Years 3 - 6

From Term 1 2017, Victorian government and Catholic schools will use the new Victorian Curriculum F-10. Curriculum related information is currently being reviewed and may be subject to change.

For more information on the curriculum, see:
The Victorian Curriculum F–10 - VCAA

Middle and upper primary EAL learners are assessed against the BL, B1, B2 and B3 stages of the EAL Developmental Continuum. This page highlights the critical understandings required by EAL learners in order  to progress through the progression points along the developmental continuum to the standards for Stages BL, B1, B2 and B3.

This page contains progression profiles of student learners at the B Stages in the three dimensions of Speaking & Listening, Reading & Viewing and Writing.  

Where available, work samples are provided for the dimensions at various progression points within Stages BL, B1, B2 and B3 . The work samples demonstrate the supportive approaches teachers use in the teaching of EAL learners. In these work samples  EAL learners demonstrate their language proficiency through the activities they undertake with the teacher or their peers.  The work samples are provided to assist mainstream teachers and EAL specialists to plan EAL appropriate activities, implement EAL approaches and strategies in class activities, and assist teachers to make accurate judgements about EAL development. The work samples can also be used by schools as a professional learning resource to support teams of teachers to assess and moderate EAL student work. 

Jump to a Lower Primary Stage within a dimension on this page

Speaking and listening Reading and viewing Writing

BL beginning

BL beginning

BL beginning

BL progressing towards

BL progressing towards

BL progressing towards

BL Standard

BL Standard

BL Standard

B1 beginning

B1 beginning

B1 beginning

B1 progressing towards

B1 progressing towards

B1 progressing towards

B1 Standard

B1 Standard

B1 Standard

B2 beginning

B2 beginning

B2 beginning

B2 progressing towards

B2 progressing towards

B2 progressing towards

B2 Standard

B2 Standard

B2 Standard

B3 beginning

B3 beginning

B3 beginning

B3 progressing towards

B3 progressing towards

B3 progressing towards

B3 Standard

B3 Standard

B3 Standard

Download a printable version of the EAL Developmental Continuum B Stages (Word - 291Kb)

Speaking and listening

Indicators of progress in the Speaking and Listening dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • focuses on producing and responding to oral English texts used for social interaction and in the school context across the curriculum.
  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on understanding and using spoken English in a variety of contexts and identifying how different contexts affect the way spoken English is used and interpreted.
  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of spoken English.
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies students at this stage typically use to speak in and learn English.
Stage Standards and progression profiles Indicators of progress

BL beginning

(B0.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at BL have very little or no oral English.  They do not respond meaningfully to English. They will join in activities, watching and copying what other students do in the classroom but may not speak.  They may spontaneously repeat words or phrases without understanding their meaning.  They may not speak in the classroom except to same language peers. They may initially attempt to communicate with the teacher using their own language. They are likely to listen to extended texts in English with visual support.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage BL beginning

 

BL progressing towards

(B0.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at BL are settling into situations where English is the dominant language. They begin to understand that communication with teachers and peers needs to be conducted in English.  They begin to learn the very basic oral English needed to manage learning in an English-speaking classroom, where the teacher adapts spoken texts to assist the students. Through their first language experiences, they understand that different forms of language and levels of politeness are used in different situations and contexts. They begin to adapt their limited, emerging English language resources to respond to new communicative and functional demands. They recognise the importance of non-verbal communication. They begin to become familiar with patterns in the sounds, intonation, rhythm, grammar and meaning of English.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage BL progressing towards

 

BL Standard

(B0.3)

At Stage BL, students communicate simply but effectively in familiar, basic social and classroom contexts, using simple formulaic and creative structures.  They learn through English, well supported by context. They contribute relatively complex ideas through simple English, and use simple English to respond to the ideas of others. Students’ English is characterised by varying grammatical accuracy, a short ‘telegraphic’ structure, simple subject/verb/object construction and overgeneralisation of rules. They use common adjectives to describe or add emphasis. They use repetitive grammar patterns copied from stories, songs, rhymes or the media. Students’ pronunciation, stress and intonation are comprehensible, but carry elements of first language pronunciation. They use some basic communication strategies, asking for repetition, and questioning to check understanding, clarify or confirm. They use some basic strategies to initiate and sustain simple conversations in English, restating, repeating or re-pronouncing as appropriate. 

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage BL standard

 

Speaking and listening – Stage BL

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

B1 beginning

(B1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at B1 are settling into situations where English is the dominant language. They begin to understand that communication with teachers and peers needs to be conducted in English.  They begin to learn the very basic oral English needed to manage learning in an English-speaking classroom. Through their first language experiences, they understand that different forms of language and levels of politeness are used in different situations and contexts. They begin to adapt their limited, emerging English language resources to respond to new communicative and functional demands. They recognise the importance of non-verbal communication. They begin to become familiar with patterns in the sounds, intonation, rhythm, grammar and meaning of English.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B1 beginning

 

B1 progressing towards

(B1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at B1 communicate simply but effectively in familiar, basic social and classroom contexts, using simple formulaic and creative structures.  They learn through English, well supported by context. They contribute relatively complex ideas through simple English, and use simple English to respond to the ideas of others. Students’ English is characterised by varying grammatical accuracy, a short ‘telegraphic’ structure, simple subject/verb/object construction and overgeneralisation of rules. They use common adjectives to describe or add emphasis. They use repetitive grammar patterns copied from stories, songs, rhymes or the media. Students’ pronunciation, stress and intonation are comprehensible, but show the influence of first language pronunciation. They use some basic communication strategies, asking for repetition, and questioning to check understanding, clarify or confirm. They use some basic strategies to initiate and sustain simple conversations in English, restating, repeating or re-pronouncing as appropriate. 

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B1 progressing towards

 

B1 Standard

(B1.3)

At Stage B1, students communicate verbally and non-verbally in routine social and classroom situations, understanding controlled English, supported by its immediate context. They use formulas, well-rehearsed and common sentence patterns and short, simple, telegraphic utterances to contribute relatively complex ideas, usually concerning concrete subject matter. They follow simple instructions, answer predictable questions, make basic requests and express basic needs. Students show initial understanding that English changes according to context and audience, and modify their English in response to a range of familiar classroom and social purposes. They use appropriate social formulas and non verbal language. Students’ utterances are characterised by varying grammatical accuracy. They use common adjectives to describe or add emphasis. Students use basic communication strategies, asking for repetition, and questioning to clarify and confirm. They restate simply, repeat or repronounce when necessary.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B1 standard

 

Speaking and listening – Stage B1

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

B2 beginning

(B2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at B2 are beginning to extend their comprehension and use of social and classroom language.  They are able to use simple conjunctions such as 'and' and 'but'. They are still very reliant on contextual support particularly to understand academic content of lessons and classroom discussions.  They are able to engage in social interactions and contribute to classroom discussions using language beyond short utterances and formulas, however breakdowns in accuracy and fluency will occur as they take more risks. For example, subject-verb agreement is very unstable and not usually correct. Students attempt to mark past time with time markers, but do not yet use past tense forms.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B2 beginning

 

B2 progressing towards

(B2.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at B2 continue to extend their comprehension and use of social and classroom language.  They appear more confident in social exchanges and will initiate interactions with teachers and peers.  They show increasing confidence in participating in structured mainstream class and group learning activities and are able to respond to direct questions about familiar classroom topics with support from the teacher. They can use endings of common verbs with some consistency, and can use 'don't' for negation. Subject-verb agreement is sometimes correct, but not in every utterance. Students can use some common past tense verbs, but still usually mark past time with time markers rather than verb tense.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B2 progressing towards

 

B2 Standard

(B2.3)

At Stage B2, students communicate and learn English in predictable social and learning situations, understanding some decontextualised English and expressing simple messages in basic English. They negotiate simple transactions and ask and answer basic questions on familiar topics, using familiar structures. They identify and describe people, places and things using simple vocabulary. They describe a series of events or actions using some detail. They initiate and manage interaction appropriately in a range of familiar contexts. They understand instructions, recounts and explanations when supported by clear contexts. They use simplified English, with varying grammatical accuracy, combining known formulas, learned grammatical features and new vocabulary to construct new utterances. They use basic time markers, common prepositions, some common contracted and simple negative forms. They use verb endings with some consistency. They use some of the terminology of new topics. They pronounce familiar words comprehensibly.  They employ basic strategies to sustain and enhance communication in English.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B2 Standard

 

Speaking and listening – Stage B2

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

B3 beginning

(B3.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at B3 interact more confidently in an increasing range of informal social situations.  They participate in and contribute to academic learning activities where the teacher provides suitable levels of contextual support through modelling and scaffolding of language and structures.  They attempt to explain and express complex ideas related to their classroom learning and experiences but are still drawing on limited language resources to do so.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B3 beginning

 

B3 progressing towards

(B3.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at B3 participate actively in most social situations. They engage more actively in classroom learning activities on familiar and unfamiliar topics using topic specific language but are still limited by their developing language resources in the extent to which they are able to contribute specific details or explanations of more complex ideas.

 

B3 Standard

(B3.3)

At Stage B3, students generally respond to and use the structures and features of English appropriately in an increasing variety of familiar formal and informal contexts. They demonstrate awareness of the register requirements of spoken English necessary for a variety of purposes. They understand the essential meaning of unfamiliar topics expressed in familiar spoken English, and extract specific information. They use appropriate sequence markers and consistently use most common, irregular past tenses. They provide greater detail through the use of longer noun groups and adverbial phrases. They use comprehensible pronunciation, stress and intonation. They access English from a range of oral and written sources, and extend their oral skills by incorporating this into their own repertoire. They are able to self-correct some errors, reformulate language to convey meaning more clearly, and add essential details.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B3 standard

 

Speaking and listening – Stage B3

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

Reading and viewing

Indicators of progress in the Reading and viewing dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on reading and responding to written English texts used for social and academic purposes.
  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on understanding written English texts which are used in a variety of contexts and identifying how different contexts affect the way written English is used and interpreted.
  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of written English.
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies employed to read and respond to written English.
Stage Standards and progression profiles Indicators of progress

BL beginning

(B0.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at BL are new to English and new to literacy. They may have little or no experience of formal learning and do not have literacy strategies already acquired through developing literacy in a first language.  They will be able to draw on general learning skills and strategies that they have used to function effectively in their own communities, for example observing, memorising, classifying. They may be reluctant to participate in reading activities. They may recognise their own language in writing, if it has a written form, and may recognise that English print is different from their own language. 

 

BL progressing towards

(B0.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at BL show interest in print and recognise some environmental print including their name.  They can recognise and name some letters.  They watch and listen as texts are read aloud to them but may not join in.   They rely on peer or teacher support to complete structured activities. They show an interest in books and focus on illustrations. They demonstrate reading-like behaviour such as holding a book, sitting and looking at a book, turning pages and looking at pictures. They are starting to build a bank of English words they recognise, such as environmental print. They read some short, familiar texts that have been well-introduced in class.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage BL progressing towards - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

BL Standard

(B0.3)

At Stage BL, students read a wide range of familiar, short, simple, repetitive, fictional and everyday texts, and complete simple, structured activities based on them. They retell a simple familiar story, and sequence a simple familiar process with sentences and pictures. They show early understanding that texts are written for a variety of purposes. They show beginning understanding of the sound/symbol relationships of English. They read some familiar words and phrases in context, and recognise, can name, and know the sounds some  common letters and letter groups usually make. They recognise that meaning is carried by intonation, and they listen for key words and for repetition of words and phrases in texts read aloud. They focus on illustrations and other non-print features when reading. They use word lists and personal dictionaries to assist them to read new words.

 

Reading and viewing – Stage BL

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and feature
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

B1 beginning

(B1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at B1 show interest in print and recognise some environmental print including their name.  They can recognise and name some letters.  They watch and listen as texts are read aloud to them but may not join in.   They rely on peer or teacher support to complete structured activities. They show an interest in books and focus on illustrations. They demonstrate reading-like behaviour such as holding a book, sitting and looking at a book, turning pages and looking at pictures.

 

B1 progressing towards

(B1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at B1 read a wide range of familiar, short, simple, repetitive, fictional and everyday texts, and complete simple, structured activities based on them. They retell a simple familiar story, and sequence a simple familiar process with sentences and pictures. They show early understanding that texts are written for a variety of purposes. They show beginning understanding of the sound/symbol relationships of English. They read some familiar words and phrases in context, and recognise, can name, and know the sounds some common letters and letter groups usually make. They recognise that meaning is carried by intonation, and they listen for key words and for repetition of words and phrases in texts read aloud. They focus on illustrations and other non-print features when reading. They use word lists and personal dictionaries to assist them to read new words.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B1 progressing towards - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

B1 Standard

(B1.3)

At Stage B1, students read short, well known texts, based on simple language structures and features, well known vocabulary and familiar contexts. They retell simply, predict likely outcomes, and complete basic comprehension activities. They show understanding of the basic purposes of texts, and choose texts appropriately for a range of simple purposes. With support, they read and gather basic information from simple, accessible texts. They combine their basic knowledge of English sound-symbol relationships, their developing sight and oral vocabulary, their beginning knowledge of the conventions of print and text organisation, and their emerging knowledge of English grammar as they read. They use appropriate intonation and phrasing when reading aloud known texts, showing an understanding of the text’s meaning and the function of basic punctuation. Students show a beginning understanding of the purposes of headings, labels, diagrams and contents pages.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B1 standard - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Reading and viewing – Stage B1

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and feature
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

B2 beginning

(B2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at B2 read short familiar texts independently and read unfamiliar texts with considerable teacher support and encouragement.  They respond personally to texts, expressing opinions simply about texts they have read often relying on the teacher’s reading and interpretation as a model for their own response. They recognise the main purposes of factual and fictional texts and begin to identify some differences between the topic, structure and presentation of factual texts.  They continue to develop their reading strategies and use their developing knowledge of sound-symbol relationships and letter patterns, sight vocabulary and knowledge of English grammar. 

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B2 beginning - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

B2 progressing towards

(B2.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at B2 read familiar texts with increasing confidence and continue to require teacher support to read unfamiliar texts with known words and predictable patterns. With teacher support, they use organisation features (e.g. headings, diagrams) to locate information in factual texts. They are able to draw on their developing proficiency in English to comprehend and predict meaning but are still quite dependent on language developed through speaking and listening in English and may rely on key words for understanding. They are able to complete simple tasks about texts however they may be able to demonstrate their understanding of texts more competently through oral rather than written language responses. They attempt to self correct but may do so inconsistently.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B2 progressing towards- scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

B2 Standard

(B2.3)

At Stage B2, students read familiar texts, and with support, unfamiliar texts containing predictable structures and familiar vocabulary. They follow simple written instructions and questions. They identify the basic purposes of simple texts, and recognise the basic stages of common text types. They use their developing vocabulary, knowledge of sentence structure and sound—letter relationships to predict and self-correct. They modify intonation to differentiate questions, exclamations or dialogue when reading aloud. They follow simple time and logical relationships between events and ideas expressed by common cohesive devices. They sequence sentences from known texts or a text on a familiar topic or experience. Students use simple strategies to assess text difficulty and to choose new texts to read.

 

Reading and viewing – Stage B2

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and feature
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

B3 beginning

(B3.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at B3 read a range of familiar and unfamiliar texts, however teacher guidance in the selection of texts is necessary to limit the incidence of densely written information and language complexity. They are able to identify key information from factual texts on familiar topics but need teacher guidance to paraphrase and summarize the main ideas.  They compare the organisational structures of different text types.  Comprehension is limited by their developing vocabulary and knowledge of English grammar.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B3 beginning - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

B3 progressing towards

(B3.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at B3 read fictional and subject-specific texts of increasing complexity but still require contextual support and more time than their English speaking peers to comprehend language and concepts.  They make simple inferences and understand the gist of texts but may not be able to identify or recall specific details in more complex texts.

 

B3 Standard

(B3.3)

At Stage B3, students read for a range of purposes and identify main ideas and specific information in classroom texts. They demonstrate understanding of the main storyline and most key information when retelling, paraphrasing and answering questions, and they compare some details in texts. They demonstrate some awareness of how information is organised in English texts. They recognise the cohesive devices connecting ideas and the organisation of information in a text, and use appropriate metalanguage to talk about the structure and features of a text. They recognise how relationships are signalled by an increasing range of conjunctions. They integrate a number of strategies to help them read new texts. They use accessible English dictionaries to check the meanings of new words and use contents pages, indexes, glossaries and headings to find information.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage B3 standard - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Reading and viewing – Stage B3

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and feature
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

 

Writing

Indicators of progress in the Writing dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on communicating in written English for social and academic purposes.
  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on producing written English texts which are used in a variety of contexts and understanding the relationship between text and context, audience and purpose.
  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of written English.
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies employed to produce written English.
Stage Standards and progression profiles Indicators of progress

BL beginning

(B0.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at BL are new to English and new to literacy. They may have little or no experience of formal learning and do not have literacy strategies already acquired through developing literacy in a first language.  They will be able to draw on general learning skills and strategies that they have used to function effectively in their own communities, for example observing, memorising, classifying.  They may be reluctant to participate in writing activities and may not understand their purpose. Depending on their prior experiences, they may have difficulty with the mechanics of writing, for example, they might not be used to holding pencils or crayons and making ‘marks’ on the page. 

Student sample: Stage BL beginning - scroll down for writing samples

 

BL progressing towards

(B0.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at BL use drawing as a means of expression.  They copy writing from other sources, for example environmental print, other students, the teacher’s model.  They will observe shared writing tasks, watching as the teacher writes and will begin to contribute as much as their limited English allows. Concentration during shared writing tasks might be limited. They talk about their writing and pictures, drawing on their oral English language and may use their first language with same language peers or bilingual teacher. Their ability to form letters and produce copied text improves.

Student sample: Stage BL progressing towards - scroll down for writing samples

 

BL Standard

(B0.3)

At Stage BL, students communicate their ideas and experiences simply through writing, drawing, copied or dictated texts. They contribute to whole-class or small-group shared writing activities. They demonstrate an early awareness that written texts in English are presented according to certain conventions which change according to context and purpose. They write simple sequenced descriptions, recounts, and procedures, following models. They write or draw for specific audiences. Students’ writing reflects their oral structures. They link ideas using common conjunctions and show awareness of the need for basic punctuation. They demonstrate knowledge of some sound–letter relationships, and show evidence of some planning. They model their writing on shared writing activities and published texts, and use some basic strategies, such as copying words or phrases from lists, using illustrations, and asking how to write a word. They begin to form letters and place text appropriately.

Student sample: Stage BL standard - scroll down for writing samples

 

Writing – Stage BL

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and feature
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

B1 beginning

(B1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at B1 use drawing as a means of expression.  They attempt to copy writing from other sources, for example environmental print, other students, the teacher’s model.  They will observe shared writing tasks, watching as the teacher writes but most likely will not contribute because of their limited English. Concentration during shared writing tasks might be limited. They talk about their writing and pictures drawing on their oral English language and may use their first language with same language peers or bilingual teacher.

Student sample: Stage B1 beginning - scroll down for writing samples

 

B1 progressing towards

(B1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at B1 communicate their ideas and experiences simply through writing, drawing, copied or dictated texts. They contribute to whole-class or small-group shared writing activities. They demonstrate an early awareness that written texts in English are presented according to certain conventions which change according to context and purpose. They write simple sequenced descriptions, recounts, and procedures, following models. They write or draw for specific audiences. Students’ writing reflects their oral structures. They link ideas using common conjunctions and show awareness of the need for basic punctuation. They demonstrate knowledge of some sound–letter relationships, and show evidence of some planning. They model their writing on shared writing activities and published texts, and use some basic strategies, such as copying words or phrases from lists, using illustrations, and asking how to write a word. They begin to form letters and place text appropriately.

Student sample: Stage B1 progressing towards - scroll down for writing samples

 

B1 Standard

(B1.3)

At Stage B1, students write and present simple texts for a variety of basic classroom and personal purposes. With support, they communicate familiar ideas, events and experiences, writing simple narratives, recounts, descriptions and reports. They use some of the basic structures and features common to these text types, demonstrating their beginning awareness that purpose influences the way texts are written and presented. Their texts incorporate the basic grammatical features of their spoken English. They spell some common words correctly and their attempts at spelling show a beginning understanding of the patterns of English sound-symbol relationships. They use some simple strategies for spelling words, checking word lists or books. They use the basic features of software to write and present their texts. With support students plan and edit their texts, providing additional information through illustrations and diagrams.

Student sample: Stage B1 standard - scroll down for writing samples

 

Writing – Stage B1

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and feature
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

B2 beginning

(B2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at B2 write their own simple texts for different purposes in guided contexts.  They draw on models provided and use repetitive structures in an attempt to write longer texts.  Their writing will include marked EAL features (e.g. sometimes leaving out articles and verb endings, and making errors with verb tenses) as they become more confident in experimenting with oral and written English.  Their writing is still reflective of their everyday spoken English. They attempt to spell new words using their own pronunciation and write familiar words accurately.

Student sample: Stage B2 beginning - scroll down for writing samples

 

B2 progressing towards

(B2.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at B2 continue to write their own simple creative and informational texts for classroom purposes with support. They begin to include some details that help orient the reader. Their writing shows varying control over grammatical features such as subject-verb agreement, tense, noun-pronoun reference and articles. Their writing begins to include features of written-like language however it is still influenced mostly by their spoken language. They spell accurately most monosyllabic and many high frequency words.

Student sample: Stage B2 progressing towards - scroll down for writing samples

 

B2 Standard

(B2.3)

At Stage B2, students write for a range of purposes on familiar topics. They write simple organised texts demonstrating a developing use of specific vocabulary and simple sentence structures. Their writing demonstrates an understanding of purposes of common text types, and their structure and features. Their texts include basic information and detail. They use a number of common conjunctions to link ideas, using pronoun references with some noun/pronoun agreement, simple phrases to express basic comparisons, and some basic punctuation. Their attempts to spell new words are plausible, and based on known sound-letter relationships. They use a range of strategies for spelling words, checking word lists or keeping personal dictionaries. They base new sentences on known sentence structures. Students draw on a developing knowledge of the writing process to plan and write simple texts, and with support, redraft them.

Student sample: Stage B2 standard - scroll down for writing samples

 

Writing – Stage B2

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and feature
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

B3 beginning

(B3.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at B3 write simple texts based on models which include basic organisational features of familiar text types.  They continue to connect ideas using a range of common conjunctions. They begin to use more written-like language in their writing and include some technical language in factual texts. They extend noun groups by including adjectives before the noun. They plan and make simple revisions of their writing.

Student sample: Stage B3 beginning - scroll down for writing samples

 

B3 progressing towards

(B3.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at B3 are beginning to construct more complex examples of logically organised genres with increasing independence. They use subject-verb agreement and tense with increasing control. They begin to include more complex language and sentence structures in their writing.  They use common technical vocabulary in factual texts more consistently.  They accurately spell common words used in the classroom and use their knowledge of sounds and letter patterns to spell unfamiliar words. 

Student sample: Stage B3 progressing towards

 

B3 Standard

(B3.3)

At Stage B3, students communicate for a range of purposes on a variety of familiar topics, using a basic repertoire of text types. They write sequenced and ordered factual texts, and narrative texts that maintain a cohesive storyline and characterisation. They demonstrate an awareness of how effective writing is tailored to purpose, the requirements of the topic and the needs of the reader. They gather and present information appropriately in texts. They write texts that demonstrate some overall cohesion and coherence. They combine and sequence simple sentences and paragraphs using common conjunctions and pronouns. They generally maintain appropriate tense throughout their texts. They discuss and reflect on their own writing, incorporating feedback when planning, reviewing or presenting their texts. They revise texts during writing and proofread after a first draft has been written, improving spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure.

Student sample: Stage B3 standard - scroll down for writing samples

 

Writing – Stage B3

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication