Lower Primary Years P-2

From Term 1 2017, Victorian government and Catholic schools will use the new Victorian Curriculum F-10. Curriculum related information is currently being reviewed and may be subject to change.

For more information on the curriculum, see:
The Victorian Curriculum F–10 - VCAA

Lower primary EAL learners are assessed against the A1 and A2 stages of the EAL Developmental Continuum. This page highlights the critical understandings required by EAL learners in order  to progress through the progression points along the developmental continuum to the standards for Stages A1 and A2.

This page contains progression profiles of student learners at the A Stages in the three dimensions of Speaking & Listening, Reading & Viewing and Writing.  

Where available, work samples are provided for the dimensions at various progression points within Stages A1 and A2. The work samples demonstrate the supportive approaches teachers use in the teaching of EAL learners. In these work samples  EAL learners demonstrate their language proficiency through the activities they undertake with the teacher or their peers.  The work samples are provided to assist mainstream teachers and EAL specialists to plan EAL appropriate activities, implement EAL approaches and strategies in class activities, and assist teachers to make accurate judgements about EAL development. The work samples can also be used by schools as a professional learning resource to support teams of teachers to assess and moderate EAL student work. 

Jump to a Lower Primary Stage within a dimension on this page.

Speaking and Listening ​Reading and Viewing ​Writing

A1 beginning​

​A1 beginning

A1 beginning

A1 progressing towards

A1 progressing towards

A1 progressing towards

A1 Standard​

​A1 Standard

A1 Standard

A2 beginning​

A2 beginning

A2 beginning

A2 progressing towards​

A2 progressing towards

A2 progressing towards

A2 Standard​

A2 Standard​

A2 Standard​

Download a printable version of the EAL Developmental Continuum A Stages (Word - 168Kb) 

Speaking and listening

Indicators of progress in the Speaking and Listening dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on producing and responding to oral English texts used for social interaction and in the school context across the curriculum.
  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on understanding and using spoken English in a variety of contexts and identifying how different contexts affect the way spoken English is used and interpreted.
  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of spoken English.
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies students at this stage typically use to speak in and learn English.
Stage Standards and progression profiles Indicators of progress​

A1 beginning

(A1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A1 have very little or no oral English.  They do not respond meaningfully to English. They will join in activities, watching and copying what other students do in the classroom but may not speak.  They may spontaneously repeat words or phrases without understanding their meaning.  They may not speak in the classroom except to same language peers.

A1 progressing towards

(A1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at A1 are settling into situations where English is the dominant language. They begin to understand that communication with teachers and peers needs to be conducted in English.  They begin to learn the very basic oral English needed to manage learning in an English-speaking classroom. Through their first language experiences, they understand that different forms of language are used in different situations and contexts. They begin to adapt their limited, emerging English language resources to respond to new communicative and functional demands. They recognise the importance of non-verbal communication. They begin to become familiar with patterns in the sounds, intonation, rhythm, grammar and meaning of English.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A1 progressing towards

A1 Standard

(A1.3)

At Stage A1, students communicate in basic English in routine, familiar, social and classroom situations. They follow and give simple instructions, exchange basic personal information and negotiate well-known, predictable activities and contexts. They begin to modify their responses and manner of interaction to match the responses of others, and to the context. They use simple learned formulas and patterns, and create original utterances by substituting words.  Their utterances are characterised by a short ‘telegraphic’ structure, simple subject/verb/object construction and overgeneralisation of rules. They use some basic communication and learning strategies to participate in and sustain interaction in English. They recognise that intonation carries meaning, and they listen for key words and for repetition of words and phrases. They use comprehensible pronunciation, stress and intonation. They use classroom resources such as pictures to help them communicate.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A1 standard

 

Speaking and Listening Stage A1​

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication
  •  

A2 beginning

(A2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A2 communicate effectively in English, using simple sentences and learned formulae. They take part in everyday activities and routines, relying heavily on a supportive teacher or peer.  They can use some appropriate terms when requested, relying on non-verbals to indicate level of politeness in other pragmatic events. They use comprehensible pronunciation, stress and intonation. They can join in well-rehearsed and well-known songs, by following peers and/or teacher.

A2 progressing towards

(A2.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at A2 can participate in routine exchanges like greetings and simple classroom routines without great difficulty. Discussions between teacher and learners at native speaker speed are still too difficult for them to participate in. They are able to generate own language beyond formulae and two word utterances. They will use approximations of structures as they test hypotheses.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A2 progressing towards

A2 Standard

(A2.3)

At Stage A2, students communicate in an expanding range of predictable social and learning situations. They express ideas and identify key points of information in classroom discussions about familiar topics, and in new topics when they are well supported by visual material, appropriate pace of delivery, and discussion which links their prior knowledge to the new context. They follow a short sequence of instructions related to classroom procedures and learning activities.  They negotiate familiar social and learning situations, using English appropriate to the situation. They adjust their speech choices in response to audience and topic. They combine known conversational formulas and vocabulary, including features of texts read in class, and apply some grammatical rules to make original utterances, of varying grammatical accuracy. They sustain communication by negotiating turn-taking, and by using strategies such as asking a speaker to repeat or to speak slowly, or asking what a word means.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A2 standard

 

Speaking and Listening Stage A2​

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication

Reading and Viewing

Indicators of progress in the Reading and viewing dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on reading and responding to written English texts used for social and academic purposes.
  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on understanding written English texts which are used in a variety of contexts and identifying how different contexts affect the way written English is used and interpreted.
  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on control over the structures and features of written English.
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies employed to read and respond to written English.
Stage Standards and progression profiles Indicators of progress​

A1 beginning

(A1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A1 do not seem to recognise English print.  They may recognise their own language, if it has a written form, and may recognise that English print is different from their own language.  They show little interest in environmental print and books and have a very limited attention span during shared reading activities.

A1 progressing towards

(A1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at A1 show interest in print and recognise some environmental print including their name. They can recognise and name some letters. They watch and listen as texts are read aloud to them but may not join in. They rely on peer or teacher support to complete structured activities. They show an interest in books and focus on illustrations. They demonstrate reading-like behaviour such as holding a book, sitting and looking at a book, turning pages and looking at pictures.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A1 progressing towards - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

A1 Standard

(A1.3)

At Stage A1, students read and engage with a wide range of short, simple repetitive texts, including shared recounts, fictional and everyday texts. They read some familiar words, phrases, logos, numbers, and signs in context. They complete simple, structured activities such as sequencing sentences and pictures. They show early understanding that texts are written and structured for a variety of purposes. They recognise some common letters and letter patterns. They name some letters of the alphabet and know the sounds some letters and letter groups commonly make. They recognise some basic features of texts, including text and page directionality, and understand the function of titles and illustrations. They handle books appropriately. When listening to texts read aloud, they listen for key words and for repetition of words and phrases. They focus on illustrations and other non-print features that assist them to understand texts.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A1 standard - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Reading and Viewing Stage A1

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication​

A2 beginning

(A2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A2 can follow and read short, simple texts along with the teacher and class in shared reading activities.  They recognize some words in English and make some attempts to read unknown words using initial sounds.  They are mostly reliant on illustrations and teacher support to establish meaning in a text and may not understand everything that they read.  While they continue to use early decoding skills, they are not yet able to predict from language context alone because of their developing English proficiency.

A2 progressing towards

(A2.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at A2 are beginning to rely less on teacher support when reading individually but still benefit from reading well known texts about familiar topics with support from the teacher. They recognize some common genres and their features.  They are able to identify key information in a text with some support from the teacher but comprehension of unfamiliar topics will be more limited.  They begin to recognize that information can be represented in visual forms. They are beginning to apply their developing reading skills with more confidence and independence. 

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A2 progressing towards - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

A2 Standard

(A2.3)

At Stage A2, students read and respond to a wide range of familiar texts. They predict, ask questions, retell and talk about texts read and viewed in class. With support, they read a range of topic-related classroom texts. They can read well known texts with some fluency. They read back their own writing or sentences scribed by another. They use texts purposefully, following simple procedural texts, and finding basic information in texts. They discuss simply the events in texts and characters’ feelings and actions. They identify the purposes of familiar texts, including catalogues, guides, simple stories and factual texts. They use their developing knowledge of context, letter-sound relationships, word patterns and text structure to read familiar texts and simple unfamiliar texts.  They interpret simple diagrams and identify the layout of a range of text types.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A2 standard - scroll down for reading and viewing samples

 

Reading and Viewing Stage A2

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication​​

Writing

Indicators of progress in the Writing dimension are organised into four aspects:

  • Texts and responses to texts focuses on communicating in written English for social and academic purposes.
  • Cultural conventions of language use focuses on producing written English texts which are used in a variety of contexts and understanding the relationship between text and context, audience and purpose.
  • Linguistic structures and features focuses on the control over the structures and features of written English.
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication focuses on the strategies employed to produce written English.
Stage Standards and progression profiles Indicators of progress​

A1 beginning

(A1.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A1 do not recognise English print and may show little interest in writing.  They draw pictures to communicate meaning and may discuss their pictures using labels or a simple phrase.  Depending on their prior experiences, they may have difficulty with the mechanics of writing, for example, they might not be used to holding pencils or crayons and making ‘marks’ on the page. 

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A1 beginning

A1 progressing towards

(A1.2)

Students progressing towards the standard at A1 use drawing as a means of expression.  They attempt to copy writing from other sources, for example environmental print, other students, the teacher’s model.  They will observe shared writing tasks, watching as the teacher writes but most likely will not contribute because of their limited English. Concentration during shared writing tasks might be limited. They talk about their writing and pictures drawing on their oral English language and may use their first language with same language peers or bilingual teacher. Students from script-different backgrounds will need more time to develop the directional concepts of left to right and top to bottom when writing.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A1 progressing towards - scroll down for writing samples

A1 Standard

(A1.3)

At Stage A1, students communicate their ideas and experiences simply through drawings, copied writing, dictated texts and their own basic writing, showing evidence of a developing understanding about the writing process.  They contribute to shared writing activities. They demonstrate an early awareness that written texts in English are presented through conventions which change according to context and purpose. They write and draw for a particular audience, and, with support, produce simple descriptions, recounts, and procedures. Students’ writing reflects their oral structures, and they link ideas using basic conjunctions. They show awareness of the need for basic punctuation. They demonstrate knowledge of some sound–letter relationships, and show evidence of some basic planning. They model their writing on shared writing activities and published texts, often copying words or phrases from books or word lists. They form letters and place text appropriately on the page.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A1 standard - scroll down for writing samples

 

Writing Stage A1

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication​​

A2 beginning

(A2.1)

Students beginning to work towards the standard at A2 are beginning to write their own very short, simple texts. They write with less need for teacher transcription as they develop an ability to use some basic conventions of writing in English. They write texts using sentence structures based on oral structures and very simple repetitive texts.  Their attempts at spelling draw heavily on phonetic strategies.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A2 beginning

A2 progressing towards

(A2.2)

Students progressing towards A2 are becoming more aware of audience and purpose, but still require significant teacher support and modelling and environmental print.  They are beginning to write texts about familiar topics and experiences which include related ideas.  They can develop a simple plan for writing using pictures or drawings.  They use invented spelling and write some words spelt conventionally from a known spelling vocabulary.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A2 progressing towards - scroll down for writing samples

A2 Standard

(A2.3)

At Stage A2, students communicate ideas, events and experiences through simple texts based on familiar spoken and written language. They write for a variety of personal and classroom purposes, using known and modelled structures and features. They write everyday texts and simple stories, recounts and factual texts based on their own and shared class experiences. They use their developing oral base and reading repertoire when writing their own texts. They write texts using simple but coherently linked sentences, basic structures and well-known vocabulary. They use some common irregular past tense verbs correctly, and link clauses using basic conjunctions and connectives. They attempt to spell new words, based on known spelling patterns and base words. They use vocabulary lists, modelled texts and familiar books to find how to write new words. They write letters legibly and make some changes to their texts when editing.

For work samples at this stage, see: Student sample: Stage A2 standard - scroll down for writing samples

 

Writing Stage A2

  • Texts and responses to texts
  • Cultural conventions of language use
  • Linguistic structures and features
  • Maintaining and negotiating communication​​