What are the rules and processes for suspensions and expulsions?
For Victorian Government school suspension and expulsion processes, see: Student Engagement and Inclusion Guidance
Non-government schools have their own disciplinary procedures. You should ask your child’s school about procedures, or contact:
Independent Schools Victoria or
Catholic Education Commission Victoria
My child has been suspended, what does this mean?
Suspension is a disciplinary measure where a student is removed from school for a specified period of time. After the suspension, your child will be return to class or the school approved activity.
If your child has been suspended, you should receive a brochure from the school, see:
What must a principal consider before a suspension occurs?
Before a student can be suspended, the principal must ensure that:
The student has had the opportunity to be heard
Any information or documentation provided by the student or their relevant person (in most cases, the student’s parent) has been taken into account in making the decision regarding suspension
Other forms of action to address the behaviour for which the student is being suspended have been considered.
For more information, see:
I work full time and cannot supervise my child while they are suspended. What are my options?
In this instance you should contact the principal and discuss your situation with them so that this can be taken into account in the decision that is made.
What is an immediate suspension?
Immediate suspensions applies only if your child's behaviour warrants suspension and poses a significant risk to the health, safety and wellbeing of themselves, staff or other students.
If the principal determines an immediate suspension, school staff must attempt to immediately notify you, and you will need to collect your child as soon as possible.
If you can't be contacted and/or cannot pick up your child, the principal will arrange supervision until the end of the school day or approved activity: school camp or excursion.
How long can my child be suspended for?
Five school days is the maximum continuous period your child may be suspended at any one time with a maximum of 15 days in a school year. The regional directed will need to give written approval for any suspesions beyond 15 days.
What information should the school provide me with if they have decided to suspend my child?
If your child is suspended, the school must give you and your child the following documents:
The principal should also provide you with the following information:
reasons for the suspension
dates and school days for suspension
where the suspension will occur (e.g. in school or other)
contact details for additional support services for you and your child
- arrangements for appropriate school work during suspension
- For shorter suspensions of three days or less, the principal should ensure that your child has meaningful work to complete while absent from school
- For suspensions of more than three days, the principal should provide a Student Absence Learning Plan and a Return to School Plan
What can my child be suspended for?
Your child can be suspended during school or on the way to-or-from school or an approved activity if they
behave in such a way as to:
pose a danger, whether actual, perceived or threatened, to the health, safety or wellbeing of any person
cause significant damage to or destruction of property
commit or attempt to commit or is knowingly involved in the theft of property
possess, use or sell or deliberately assist another person to possess, use or sell illicit substances or weapons
fail to comply with any clear and reasonable instruction of a staff member so as to pose a danger, whether actual, perceived or threatened, to the health, safety or wellbeing of any person
consistently engage in behaviour that vilifies, defames, degrades or humiliates another person based on age; breastfeeding; gender; identity; impairment; industrial activity; lawful sexual activity; marital status; parental status; physical features; political belief or activity; pregnancy; race; religious belief or activity; sexual orientation; personal association (whether as a relative or otherwise) with a person who is identified by reference to any of the above attributes
consistently behave in an unproductive manner that interferes with the wellbeing, safety or educational opportunities of any other student.
What if I am not sure if my child’s behaviour warrants suspension?
If you have any concerns about your child’s suspension, you can contact the school principal and discuss the reasons and grounds for the suspension.
You should provide the principal with extra information or documents to be considered. For example, if your child’s behaviour is due to a learning difficulty, you may wish to discuss the supports and strategies available for your child.
You may also like to ask your school for a copy of their discipline policy to see whether expectations have been breached.
What is an in-school suspension?
An in-school suspension means that a student remains on school grounds under supervision, but does not attend class. You child may:
be paired with an experienced teacher or staff member and go to classes with them
participate in a work-based, in-school suspension (e.g. working outdoors or preparation of educational materials)
be provided with a dedicated room or area to complete their in-school suspension under appropriate supervision.
While this is different from a traditional ‘out-of-school’ suspension the same process apply for both.
What will my child do when they are suspended? Does the school have to provide him/her with work?
It is expected that for a suspension of less than three days, a student is given meaningful work to complete. If a student is suspended for more than three days, it is expected that a Student Absence Plan and a Return to School plan be developed.
What happens after the suspension?
After a suspension of five school days, your school should hold a student support group meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to discuss:
the Student Absence Learning Plan and the school work completed during the period of suspension
the strategies to be developed within and outside of the school to meet the educational, social and emotional needs of your child
the responsibilities of you, your child, the school staff and other professionals in supporting these strategies.
Can I appeal a suspension?
There is no process for appealing a suspension. If you have any concerns about your child’s suspension, you should talk to the school principal as soon as possible.
If you still have concerns, you may contact the community liaison officer at your local regional office. If you feel your concerns have not been addressed, you can write to your regional director or the Deputy Secretary, Regional Support Group to lodge a formal complaint. For more information, see:
Expulsion means a student is permanently excluded from the school form where they are expelled. If your child has been expelled, you should have received a brochure, see:
Parent Brochure - Procedures following Expulsion (pdf - 417.35kb) or
Parent Brochure - Procedures following Expulsion (rtf - 99.72kb)
For what reasons can my child be expelled?
Expulsion happens for serious behavioural issues.
Your child can be expelled, at school, on the way to-or-from school, or during an approved activity if they behave in such a way to cause suspension, and the behaviour is so serious that expulsion is the only option to maintain the health, safety and wellbeing of students and staff and the effectiveness of the educational programs.
What are the procedures before expulsion?
Before making a decision to expel your child, the principal must hold a behaviour review conference. You and your child (or their relevant person) are encouraged to attend the meeting so you can understand the grounds and reasons why expulsion is being considered.
When attending the meeting, you are allowed to bring an independent support person to assist with your role in advocating for your child as long as they are not acting for fee or reward.
If you are unwilling or unable to attend the behaviour review conference, you or your child (in some circumstances) can nominate another person to attend on your behalf, see:
Identifying a Relevant Person
If any person attending the behaviour review conference requires the assistance of an interpreter (including Auslan), the principal will ensure that such assistance is provided at the meeting.
If you and/or your child and/or the nominee do not attend the meeting, it is important to note that:
the behaviour review conference can proceed in your absence. In such circumstances, you should be provided with documentation about the key points discussed at the meeting.
the principal can still make a decision to expel your child even though you and your child did not participate in the behaviour review conference.
I have been asked to attend a behaviour review conference for my child. Does this mean that my child has been expelled?
No. The purpose of a behaviour review conference is to ensure you:
can understand the grounds and reasons why expulsion is being considered
have an opportunity to be heard
can provide relevant information and documentation that can be considered prior to the principal making a decision about whether to expel your child
can assist in determining an appropriate course of action in the event that expulsion is decided
can help identify the future educational, training and/or employment options that are most suited to your child.
What if I cannot attend the behaviour review conference?
It is strongly recommended that you attend the behaviour review conference. If you are unable to attend at the date, time and place that has been arranged, you should immediately contact the school principal to make alternative arrangements.
If suitable alternative arrangements cannot be made, you can nominate someone to take on the role of the relevant person for the expulsion process. You will need to sign a nomination form for this to take effect, see the above question on the relevant person for more details.
If the behaviour review conference proceeds without you (or the relevant person) or your child, the school principal is required to ensure the key points discussed at the meeting are recorded in writing and provided to you (or your relevant person) and your child.
Can I bring a support person to my meetings with the school? Should I bring my child?
Yes, you are permitted to bring a support person to any meetings regarding your child’s expulsion as long as they are not acting for fee or reward.
Generally, it is recommended that a student attend meetings related to their expulsion as this gives them the opportunity for their concerns to be heard. Depending on the circumstances however, this may not be appropriate or practical.
When will I be notified of a final outcome? What documentation must the school provide to me?
The principal must notify you and your child of their decision within 48 hours of the conclusion of the behaviour review conference. If the principal decides to expel your child, you should be provided with the following documentation:
- Notice of Expulsion
- a copy of the Expulsion Appeal form
- a brochure providing information on expulsions.
What happens after an expulsion? Where will my child go to school?
If your child is of compulsory school age, the principal and the regional office must ensure that your child is enrolled at another registered school; enrolled at a registered training organisation; or engaged in employment as soon as practicable. This plan of action should be discussed and agreed to at the behaviour review conference.
If your child is not of compulsory school age, the principal and the regional office can provide you and your child with information about other schools, registered training organisations and employment agencies that provide suitable opportunities for your child.
If there is going to be a delay in transitioning your child into a new education or training setting, the school must provide them with meaningful work to complete until the transition has been implemented.
Relevant person and supports
Who or what is a ‘relevant person’?
Suspension and expulsion process guidelines refers to a relevant person who supports and advocates for students. In most cases this will be the student’s parent or carer. However, in some situations, the relevant person may also be another trusted adult nominated by a student’s parent. This ensures students always have someone to provide them with support and advocacy throughout a suspension or expulsion process.
If the student is over 18 years of age, they can act as their own relevant person unless they nominate another adult to do so.
For information on how a school can determine who will act as a student’s relevant person,see:
Identifying a Relevant Person
Can I nominate someone else to play the role of relevant person?
Yes. If you are unable to act as the relevant person for your child, you may nominate another adult in your child’s life to do so. This can be another family member, a family friend, or trusted adult known to your child.
It is important to remember that if you do decide to take on the role of your child’s relevant person you may bring a support person with you to any meetings held with the school. This support person is not allowed to act in this role for fee or reward.
Can I bring a support person to meetings with my child’s school?
Yes, you can bring a support person to any meetings held with the school as long as they are not acting for fee or reward.
What is a suitable person?
In some cases, it may not be possible to identify an adult to take on the role of relevant person to support a particular student.
A suitable person is a Department of Education and Early Childhood Development employee with relevant experience in student welfare matters. A suitable person can take on the role of the relevant person to support and advocate for any student whose parents are unable or unwilling to do so.
Can I appeal my child’s expulsion? Can my child appeal their expulsion?
Yes, your child can appeal the expulsion on the following grounds:
the school did not follow the expulsion process
grounds for expulsion are considered unfair
there were demonstrably limited prior interventions and strategies used prior to the decision to expel where the student has a history of behavioural issues
You should be provided with an appeal form when you receive formal notification of your child’s expulsion. This form needs to be completed and sent to your child’s school within 10 days. It is recommended that you follow up with your child’s school to ensure that it is received.
other extenuating circumstances.
If your child is a minor, or otherwise unable to appeal the expulsion themselves, you may do so on their behalf so long as you take into consideration their views and best interests.
To access an expulsion appeal form, see:
What happens during an expulsion appeal?
Once the expulsion appeal is received by the school, it will be forwarded to the Department’s regional office for further action.
The regional director will consider the appeal and determine whether to uphold or overturn the decision to expel your child.
In considering the appeal, the regional director may appoint an expulsion review panel (ERP) to review your child’s particular case.
How does an expulsion review panel (ERP) work?
If an ERP has been appointed, its role is to:
If the regional director decides not to appoint an expulsion review panel what will happen?
The regional director will consider your appeal documentation, including the form and any other information you and the principal may have provided.
Based on this information, the regional director will make a decision on whether or not to uphold the expulsion.
If I appeal my child’s expulsion, what will he/she do while we wait for a final decision?
Your child’s school should continue to implement the course of action determined in the behaviour review conference.
If your child is of compulsory school age, this will include the provision of ongoing appropriate work until your child engages in other educational, training or employment opportunities, or until the expulsion appeal has been determined (whichever occurs sooner).
If your child is not of compulsory school age, the principal will provide you and your child with information about other schools, registered training organisations and employment agencies that provide suitable opportunities for your child.
If you have concerns about the course of action being implemented or the work being provided to your child you should discuss this further with your child’s school principal or the regional office.
What will happen when a decision is made?
The regional director will notify you verbally of the outcome of an expulsion appeal within 24 hours of the decision being made.
If the regional director decides to
uphold the principal’s decision to expel your child the principal must take the following action:
In the case of a student of compulsory school age:
In the case of a student who is beyond compulsory school age:
Continue to implement the action plan to transition the student to another school, registered training organisation, or employment
Continue to provide the student with appropriate work until the transition to another school, registered training organisation, or employment has been finalised.
Ensure that the student and the relevant person have been provided with information about other schools, registered training organisations or employment that may provide suitable opportunities for the student.
If the regional director decides to
overturn the principal’s decision to expel your child the principal must take the following action:
If the expulsion has been overturned, the principal must take the following action as soon as possible:
Your child must be re-enrolled in the school
The principal must develop a Return to School Plan for the student in collaboration with the student, the relevant person, and their teachers.
The record of the expulsion must be removed from the student’s permanent record and CASES21
Where can I find further information?
The procedures for suspension and expulsion are detailed in the Student Engagement and Inclusion Guidelines, see: Suspension Process or
You may also wish to refer to the following resources:
For more information and support, you should contact the community liaison officer at your local regional office. See:
Local regional office
Other support services include: