Enquiry


Ask relevant questions

Tool or strategy Description Example in LOTE study
Five Whys The 'Five Whys' is a process for thinking through a complex issue or problem. It is a way of avoiding assumptions and irrelevant information in a scenario. It assists students to ask relevant questions about the issue or scenario.

  1. Identify a problem, situation or idea to be studied.
  2. Ask "Why?" this particular problem, situation or idea exists.
  3. This results (usually!) in a set of possible answers to which you then apply the question Why? This results in more possible answers to which you apply the question Why? and so on, until you have asked the question five times or you are satisfied that you have arrived at a root cause for the issue, or have reduced the problem to its basic level.
The real objective is to encourage the students to avoid assumptions and logic traps and instead to trace the chain of causality in direct increments from the effect through any layers of side-issues and 'distractions' to the first or root cause. It provides you with a variety of causes which you can then investigate in more detail. It also helps to prevent diving into solution-generation too quickly.
The class is working on the use of honorifics, greetings and different forms of address. They read, view and listen to texts which illustrate different usage.

Students can work through the 'Five Whys' as a method of asking and answering pertinent questions about the relationship between speakers and other factors which lead to a choice about the forms of address used.

Questions and answers could work like this:

Scenario: during a transaction, a young person, Luca, addresses a shopkeeper as "Signora Anna" and uses other phrases belonging to a more formal register, including referring to her in the third person.
  • Why does Luca call her by the title Signora? To show deference to person who is not part of his family or friendship circle.
  • Why then use her first name, rather than her surname? Because he visits the store often, and she is familiar to him. He wants to acknowledge that she isn't a stranger.
  • But why then does Luca refer to another market stallholder just by his first name? Because Luca knows him better.
  • So why use the polite form to Anna if she is familiar to him too? Because it is a mark of respect or deference to an older person who isn't a family member.
  • But the stallholder is much older, and not a friend or relation; why does Luca use tu with him and not with Anna? Because he wants to show more deference to a woman, and thinks he needs to defer less to the stallholder.
  • Why? Because he jokes more often with the male stallholder, and talks with him in the casual atmosphere of the market; it is a more informal situation.
Six Thinking Hats Six Thinking Hats is a strategy devised by Edward de Bono, which enables people to extend their way of thinking about a topic by wearing a range of different 'thinking' hats.
The six hats of different colours denote the basic types of thinking:
  • white hat thinking identifies the facts and what information is missing
  • black hat thinking examines the negative aspects of a topic
  • yellow hat thinking focuses on the positive aspects of a topic
  • red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of emotions and feelings
  • green hat thinking requires creative and lateral thinking about a topic
  • blue hat thinking focuses on metacognition (thinking about the thinking that is required), reflection and the need to understand the big picture
The colours help students to visualise six separate modes of thinking and convey something of the meaning of that thinking e.g. red pertaining to matters of the heart, white as neutral and objective.

http://www.debonogroup.com/6hats.htm
Students need practice in this strategy before applying it in a LOTE class.

It is a useful strategy for group work on a significant assignment, for example:
  • researching and presenting information on a topic
  • creating an information product for a specific audience and purpose
  • planning a special event

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Pose and define problems

Tool or strategy Description Example in LOTE study
Six Thinking Hats Six Thinking Hats is a strategy devised by Edward de Bono, which enables people to extend their way of thinking about a topic by wearing a range of different 'thinking' hats.
The six hats of different colours denote the basic types of thinking:
  • white hat thinking identifies the facts and what information is missing
  • black hat thinking examines the negative aspects of a topic
  • yellow hat thinking focuses on the positive aspects of a topic
  • red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of emotions and feelings
  • green hat thinking requires creative and lateral thinking about a topic
  • blue hat thinking focuses on metacognition (thinking about the thinking that is required), reflection and the need to understand the big picture
The colours help students to visualise six separate modes of thinking and convey something of the meaning of that thinking e.g. red pertaining to matters of the heart, white as neutral and objective.

http://www.debonogroup.com/6hats.htm
 
Diamond Display A diamond display is a depiction of what students consider to be the most important or the most true about a topic. The topic is recorded on a diamond and nine statements can be written in boxes on a sheet of paper. Students cut out the statements and arrange them in a diamond shape, with the statements that they most agree with or think most important at the top of the diamond. Pairs or trios share their diamond displays and justify their choices.
Diamond display is useful at different stages of inquiry- to help pose problems by identifying the most interesting or relevant areas to investigate, and for reflecting on and sorting ideas and information that emerge through an investigation.

http://www.globaleducation.edna.edu.au/globaled/go/engineName/filemanager/pid/1845/diamond_ranking.pdf;jsessionid=191F32AE5DFDBD8B5237268729E57BCC?actionreq=actionFileDownload&fid=12624
 
Five Whys The 'Five Whys' is a process for thinking through a complex issue or problem. It is a way of avoiding assumptions and irrelevant information in a scenario. It assists students to ask relevant questions about the issue or scenario.

  1. Identify a problem, situation or idea to be studied.
  2. Ask "Why?" this particular problem, situation or idea exists.
  3. This results (usually!) in a set of possible answers to which you then apply the question Why? This results in more possible answers to which you apply the question Why? and so on, until you have asked the question five times or you are satisfied that you have arrived at a root cause for the issue, or have reduced the problem to its basic level.
The real objective is to encourage the students to avoid assumptions and logic traps and instead to trace the chain of causality in direct increments from the effect through any layers of side-issues and 'distractions' to the first or root cause. It provides you with a variety of causes which you can then investigate in more detail. It also helps to prevent diving into solution-generation too quickly.

'Five Whys' assists students to work through layers of a complex issue, and define factors and cause/effect relationships as a prelude to looking for answers and solutions.
The class has been studying a topic: 'The ideal body shape' as represented in the French media. They have read, viewed and listened to a variety of texts. As preparation for their assessment task, which is a written response, you can help them identify the factors that cause and contribute to particular perceptions of body ideals.
PMI - Plus Minus Interesting PMI is a thinking strategy developed by Edward de Bono. It helps students to learn to:
  • see both sides of an argument
  • view things from a different point of view
  • think broadly about an issue
  • suspend judgement
  • make informed decisions
  1. Present the statement, issue or scenario you wish your students to explore
  2. Draw a PMI frame on the board or overhead. Label each column and explain the term and its use:
    a. PLUS: what are positives, advantages, benefits?
    b. MINUS: what are negatives, difficulties, disadvantages, drawbacks?
    c. INTERESTING: what are you unsure about, would you like to know more about, do you think is important?
  3. Divide the class into pairs or small groups. each group draws their own chart.
  4. The groups are given time to brainstorm their responses on their charts.
  5. At the end of the designated time, students report back on their ideas from each of the categories. A whole-class PMI is developed, which becomes a starting point for research, or an individual written/ oral response.
  • Helps students prepare for a spoken/ written response to an issue or statement.
  • Can be used as a way of clarifying aspects of a complex issue.
  • Helps students to define areas for research/ investigation.

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Plan what to do and how to research

Tool or strategy Description Example in LOTE study
Graphic organisers Graphic organisers are a variety of templates which help students visually organise information and ideas. These forms of graphic representation are more consistent with the way the human brain works than the traditional linear forms of notetaking. The brain does not tend to store information in neat lines or columns. It stores information by pattern and association, and it is these processes that are used to present and record information in a visually meaningful way. Graphic organisers help students to deepen their understanding of a complex topic by
  • interacting personally with information
  • representing abstract or implicit information in more concrete forms
  • participating in group thinking
  • providing a structured overview
  • relating new information to prior knowledge
  • showing relationships and interrelationships between concepts
  • elaborate key points

Students can construct a visual representation of knowledge using paper- or board-based templates, or using software such as Inspiration. Teachers will need to formally instruct students on the purpose and use of the graphic organiser and the type of thinking being targeted in the activity.

For more information:
http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/#graphic

http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/assessment/preptoyear-10/tools/graphicorganisers.htm

http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/
Use graphic organisers to:
  • Introduce a topic by drawing a framework of the concepts to be learned and the tasks to be undertaken.
  • Map students' prior knowledge and experiences about the topic
  • Focus and track class discussions
  • Organise and elaborate on ideas for essays, scripts, research, scenarios, projects
  • Assess students' understanding of a topic (the student constructs the visual representation of information)
  • Review and reflect on performance
Six Thinking Hats Six Thinking Hats is a strategy devised by Edward de Bono, which enables people to extend their way of thinking about a topic by wearing a range of different 'thinking' hats.
The six hats of different colours denote the basic types of thinking:
  • white hat thinking identifies the facts and what information is missing
  • black hat thinking examines the negative aspects of a topic
  • yellow hat thinking focuses on the positive aspects of a topic
  • red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of emotions and feelings
  • green hat thinking requires creative and lateral thinking about a topic
  • blue hat thinking focuses on metacognition (thinking about the thinking that is required), reflection and the need to understand the big picture
The colours help students to visualise six separate modes of thinking and convey something of the meaning of that thinking e.g. red pertaining to matters of the heart, white as neutral and objective.

http://www.debonogroup.com/6hats.htm
 

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Created on: Friday, February 8th, 2008 | Page last updated: Monday, 16th January 2012

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